Green Green:  Financing News for the U.S. Geothermal Industry


Volume 3, Number 3
31 May 2002

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HOT NEWS

New UN Program to Support Geothermal Development

Solicitations & RFPs

Many Foundations Fund Renewable Energy Projects

REGULAR FEATURES

In Short

Upcoming Events

Other Geothermal and Related Calendars

New UN Program to Support Geothermal Development

The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) have joined to create the Sustainable Alternatives Net (SANet).

SANet will facilitate investments in sustainable technologies—including geothermal energy—in emerging markets by providing information, expert advice, and financing for pre-investment feasibility studies.

Currently in the development stage, the SANet Geothermal Program features the following components:

  • Information and Guidance on Project Financing to geothermal project developers on various items, e.g., financing requirements, options and strategies for obtaining high-risk investment financing, contingent loans and guarantees, and links to multilateral and bilateral financial institutions, export credit agencies, private banks, and other funding entities.
  • Enhancement of Policy and Regulatory Structures in countries where the energy policy, regulations, and tax laws work to the disadvantage of alternative energies development. SANet will create links to multi- and bi-lateral agencies that work with host countries to encourage policy and regulatory reform to "level the playing field."
  • Support for Selected Geothermal Projects in emerging-markets countries will be provided by linking cooperating experts, institutions, industries, and host-country governments. Such coalitions will help project developers effectively deal with business, regulatory, and technical issues (e.g., negotiation of power purchase agreements) that might otherwise jeopardize the project's success.
  • Inventory of Sites to identify near-term geothermal opportunities in emerging-market countries.
  • Co-funding of Pre-Investment Feasibility Studies for near-term geothermal projects. Up to 49% of the cost of feasibility or due-diligence studies will be provided, not to exceed $US 49,000.
  • "Best Practices Geothermal Handbook" to disseminate lessons learned from existing geothermal projects around the world.
  • The SANet Web Site which will contain geothermal market and technology data, business planning tools, guidance on financing opportunities, policy and regulatory information, and links to other web sites, institutions, and qualified experts.

In addition, SANet is creating GeoRISE, an alliance of financial institutions, to enable developers to obtain funds for exploratory drilling and resource assessment.

GeoRISE will help developers gain greater access to funds for drilling and assessment by distributing the financial risk among a variety of public and private providers of loans, equity investment capital, and insurance. It will also establish a contingent loan fund to partially finance drilling and resource assessment work, with loans to be repaid from project revenues.

SANet is seeking partners—national and international organizations and investment entities—to cosponsor the SANet Geothermal Program and GeoRISE.

For further information email Stephen Hirsch, UNEP/GEF Representative, Tel: (703) 390-5592.

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Solicitations & RFPs

The following solicitations and requests for proposals (RFPs) may be of interest to the U.S. geothermal community:

Name Due Date (2002)
Geothermal Resource and Exploration Definition (GRED) 4 June
Energy Innovations Small Grant (EISG) Program 21 June
FY2002 Joint Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy Science Initiative 2 July
Rural Community Development Initiative (RCDI) 2 July
California Energy Commission Renewable Energy Consumer Education Program 5 July
California Energy Commission Geothermal Program 22 July
California Energy Commission International Energy Fund 26 July
Funding to Develop Essential Community Facilities in Rural Communities with Severe Economic Depression 16 August

Due 4 June 2002

Geothermal Resource and Exploration Definition (GRED). The Geothermal Resource Exploration and Definition program is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. geothermal industry to evaluate additional geothermal resources throughout the western United States, promote their development, and increase geothermal electrical power generation.

Projects may consist of up to three phases:

  1. Resource Evaluation,
  2. Drilling and Characterization, and
  3. Testing and Assessment.

Applications must be cost-shared with the applicant providing a minimum of 20% of the cost. DOE funding will be used to help mitigate a portion of the initial risk. Up to $600,000 will be awarded to one or two Phase I projects. Additional funds for Phases II and III are dependent on congressional authorization.

The solicitation is available through the DOE IIPS web site. Applications must be received by 4 June 2002, 3:00 PM, Mountain Time.

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Due 21 June 2002

Energy Innovations Small Grant (EISG) Program. The California Energy Commission's EISG Program provides up to $75,000 to small businesses, non-profits, individuals, and academic institutions to conduct research that establishes the feasibility of new, innovative energy concepts.

Research projects must target one of the six Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program areas, which includes geothermal energy, address a California energy problem, and provide a potential benefit to California electric ratepayers. Up to four solicitations per year are planned.

The solicitation is available from the EISG Program web site. Grant applications must be received by 21 June 2002.

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Due 2 July 2002

FY2002 Joint Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Office of Fossil Energy (FE) Science Initiative (DE-PS26-02NT41432). The major goal of the Science Initiative is to advance research and development (R&D) of energy technologies by exploring and exploiting synergies among different research fields, technologies, investigator communities, and end-use applications.

The solicitation will pursue "bridge" R&D of interest to EERE and FE, with a focus on ultimate applications that promote energy efficiency and clean energy. This category of R&D occupies the spectrum between exploratory science and pre-commercial applied R&D, and includes four general areas of interest: (1) Materials Sciences, (2) Fuels and Chemical Sciences, (3) Sensors and Controls Sciences, and (4) Energy Conversion Sciences. Applications must be submitted under the appropriate Program Area of Interest.

The solicitation is available through the DOE IIPS web site. Applications must be received by 2 July 2002, 11:59 PM, Eastern Time.

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Due 2 July 2002

Rural Community Development Initiative (RCDI). The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requests applications to develop the capacity and ability of nonprofit organizations, low-income rural communities, or federally recognized tribes to undertake projects related to housing, community facilities, or community and economic development in rural areas.

Eligible activities include but are not limited to projects that support micro-enterprise and sustainable development; pre-development professional services (i.e., architectural, engineering, or legal); and projects that provide financial and technical assistance components to essential community facilities projects.

The RCDI has $12 million available for grants. The minimum grant request is $50,000; the maximum is $1 million. Matching funds must be in the form of cash or confirmed funding commitments and be at least equal to the grant amount. In-kind contributions cannot be used as matching funds.

For more information, see the USDA RCDI web site, or contact Beth Jones at (202) 720-1498. Applications are due 2 July 2002.

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Due 5 July 2002

California Energy Commission Renewable Energy Consumer Education Program . The California Energy Commission (CEC) Renewable Energy Consumer Education Program provides administration for marketing activities which promote renewable generation technologies in California. The program will award grants for projects and activities that promote renewable electricity and disseminate information on renewable technologies in the state.

Approximately $500,000 from the Renewable Resource Trust Fund in total grant funding is available for projects. The project requires a minimum of 25% match funding from the applicant and/or other sources in the form of cash and/or in-kind support.

Consumer education can take many forms, including consumer outreach (brochures and other materials distributed through local forums), public relations activities (news releases), mass media (television, radio, or billboard messages), education of children or adults through school programs, or consumer information resources (a 1-800 number or web site).

For more information, see the CEC Solicitations web site. Proposals are due 5 July 2002.

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Due 22 July 2002

California Energy Commission Geothermal Program. Up to $7.5 million will be available to fund geothermal research, development, demonstration, commercialization, environmental enhancement, mitigation, or planning projects. Specifically, the CEC Geothermal Program provides funding for the following:

  • RD&D projects which reduce the life-cycle cost of geothermal electricity generation,
  • RD&D projects which reduce the uncertainty and cost of enhancing geothermal reservoir systems,
  • Projects which mitigate the adverse impacts of geothermal development, and
  • Projects which provide significant environmental enhancement.

Private for-profit entities and local jurisdictions may apply for an award. Projects must be located in California or be sponsored by a California-based company. Funding availability is based on estimated revenues and interest earnings coming from the Geothermal Resources Development Account.

For more information, see the CEC Geothermal Program web site. The final due date for applications is 22 July 2002.

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Due 26 July 2002

California Energy Commission International Energy Fund. The fund helps qualifying small and medium-sized companies start business in overseas markets by providing money for pre-investment activities, e.g., feasibility studies, market and site assessments and analyses, and technology transfer agreements. A total of $250,000 is available for FY2003-2003; up to $25,00 will be awarded per project.

Applicants are required to provide at least half of the total cost of the project development activities. In order to be receive an award, they must demonstrate the host country's strong support for the project.

CEC will hold informational workshops on the fund on 18 June in Los Angeles, and 19 June in Oakland.

For more information, see the CEC International Energy Fund web site, or email Tambu Kisoki, Tel: (916) 654-4719. Proposals are due 26 July 2002, 4:00 PM.

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Due 16 August 2002

Funding to Develop Essential Community Facilities in Rural Communities with Severe Economic Depression. The USDA Rural Housing Service requests proposals for projects that develop essential community facilities in rural communities for eligible public entities, nonprofit corporations, and tribal governments with extreme high unemployment and severe economic depression.

Projects must serve the community as a whole and be needed for the orderly development of the community, e.g., provide an essential service to the residents. There is no set maximum loan limits with the Community Facilities direct and guaranteed loan programs. Projects cannot be private, commercial or business undertakings.

Pre-applications are due 3 May and 16 August 2002. All pre-applications selected for funding consideration will be notified by the State or field office. Applications are accepted on a continual basis until the $19 million in funding is exhausted.

For more information, see the USDA Rural Housing Service web site, or contact Joseph Ben-Israel at (202) 720-1490.

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Many Foundations Fund Renewable Energy Projects

In addition to the government agencies listed above, several private foundations provide funding to renewable energy projects:

  • The Turner Foundation supports renewable energy projects, making funding decisions four times a year. Turner Foundation web site
  • The Joyce Mertz-Gilmore Foundation supports projects that develop renewables as a significant source of energy for the future. In 2000, the Foundation distributed over $1.9 million in funding for energy programs. Joyce Mertz-Gilmore Foundation web site
  • Under their Power Sector program, the Energy Foundation supports efforts to advance clean energy and accelerate the commercialization of renewable energy. Energy Foundation web site
  • Earthwatch Institute and its research affiliate, the Center for Field Research, promote communication between scholars and the public through participant funding. Areas of interest include renewables. Grants range from $7,000-$130,000. Center for Field Research web site

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In Short

  • The Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have partnered to identify and evaluate renewable energy resource potential for power production on federal lands. The objective is to identify which BLM planning units in the western states have the greatest potential for private-sector development of renewable resources. The draft report has been submitted for public comment through 12 July 2002, and can be downloaded in PDF format from BLM's web site.
  • The FY2002 Military Construction Appropriations Act provided $6 million to the Department of Defense (DoD) to perform a renewable energy assessment at or near DoD installations. DoD is also directed to provide a plan for encouraging the participation of private industry in the development and provision of renewable energy, and address DoD's market, regulatory, legal, cost and other possible impediments to an increased reliance on renewable resources. The Air Force will be the executive agent. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, NREL, and Sandia National Laboratories will assist DoD. The final report is due to Congress by 30 April 2003.
  • NREL recently published the technical report "An Economic Valuation of a Geothermal Production Tax Credit." Written by Brandon N. Owens of NREL's Energy Analysis Office for the Office of Power Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy, the report is available in PDF format from the NREL web site.
  • The CleanTech Fund, offered and co-managed by Econergy International Corporation and A2R Environmental Funds of Brazil, is a new investment vehicle developed by the Inter-American Development Bank to accelerate the advancement of the clean technology sector in Latin America. The $35-million private equity fund will invest in small and medium-sized enterprises that provide clean technology products or services that reduce pollution or recycle waste, improve energy efficiency or utilize renewable energy. The CleanTech Fund is scheduled to begin investing in 2002.
  • The U.S. Export-Import Bank (EXIM) announced the establishment of a Renewable Energy Exports Advisory Committee on 2 May. The objective of the committee is to help EXIM expand its support for U.S. exporters in renewable energy industries including geothermal. Former Deputy Secretary of Energy, W. Henson Moore, currently president and CEO of the American Forest and Paper Association, will chair the advisory committee.
  • The University of Utah's Energy and Geoscience Institute (UU-EGI) and New York, NY-based Caithness Energy, LLC will receive $4.5 million in cooperative agreement funding from DOE over the next five years as part of a $12-million initiative to boost production at the Coso geothermal field in California. DOE said the funding covers a cooperative agreement for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) under a three-stage program. UU-EGI and Caithness will use hydrofracing technology to create additional channels in the subsurface rock to allow more hot water to have access to existing geothermal wells. For more information, contact Tom Welch at DOE, Tel: (202) 586-5806.
  • Canadian company, Continental Ridge Resources Inc. has announced a private placement. It will place approximately 215,000 Units, at a price of 35 cents per Unit, for gross proceeds of C$75,000. Proceeds of the private placement will be used for evaluating possible acquisitions of other geothermal sites in Nevada and California and for general corporate purposes. The company is currently drilling at Blue Mountain in Nevada.
  • AIDAREVO Ltd., a Bulgarian company, is looking for equipment for several small geothermal binary power plants. The first of 12 wells to be developed has a temperature of 180ºC at 500 m and a flow rate of 20-30 l/s. For more information, email George Tsolov, Manager, AIDAREVO Ltd. Fax: +359 2 333 524; Mobile: +359 88 607 175.

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Upcoming Events

June September December
July October 2003
August November 2004
2-5 June
Web site: 2002 Energy Workshop and Exposition
Palm Springs, CA
Organized by the DOE Federal Energy Management Program, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the U.S. General Services Administration

2-6 June
Web site: Energy 2002
Palm Springs, CA
The workshop is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program, and cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. General Services Administration.

2-7 June
Web site: Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems
Dubrovnik, Croatia
Organized by the University of Zagreb and the Instituto Superior Tecnico; sponsored by UNESCO

3-4 June
Third U.S.-African Energy Ministerial Conference
Casablanca, Morocco
Contact: Samuel Browne, U.S. Department of Energy, Tel: (202) 586-8724
The Casablanca Conference will focus primarily on the promotion of sustainable energy development in Africa. The U.S. Secretary of Energy and other senior U.S. Government officials are scheduled to attend, along with many African energy ministers and decision-makers.

4 June
"Tools to Finance The Export of Environmental Products & Services"
Denver, CO
Contact: Lana Lennberg, Tel: (303) 844-6623, ext. 13
Learn about U.S. Government programs to increase envirotech exports, special finance programs for new-to-export and small-to-medium-sized environmental companies, how to extend credit terms to foreign buyers and locate overseas partners, and how successful U.S. companies do business overseas.

4-7 June
Email: 2nd Balkan International Power Generation, Transmission & Distribution Exhibition
Belgrade, FR Yugoslavia

6 June
Export and Project Finance Tools for Environmental Products & Services Conference
Overland Park, KS
Contact: Ruby Limo, Tel: (816) 410-9201
The seminar will provide a hands-on presentation on the numerous grant and export finance programs available to U.S. environmental firms and an opportunity to meet one-on-one with speakers from the U.S. Trade Development Agency, World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Export-Import Bank, and U.S. Small Business Administration.

9-11 June
Web site: WEC Regional Energy Forum: Energy and European Integration
Neptun, Romania
Organized by the World Energy Council

11-13 June
Web site: PowerGen Europe 2002: Generating Ideas for Power
Fiera Milano, Milan, Italy

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11-15 June
Web site: 64th EAGE Conference and Exhibition
Florence, Italy

12-13 June
Web site: DOE Workshop on Dixie Valley Geothermal Research
Desert Research Institute
Reno, Nevada

14-19 June
International Conference on the Earth Thermal Regime and Related Research Methods
Moscow, Russia
Email: Organizing Committee or Professor Yu. A. Popov

18 June
CEC International Energy Fund Informational Workshop
Los Angeles, CA
Contact: Public Advisor's Office, Tel: (916) 654-4489 or (800) 822-6228
The Energy Technology Export Program announces its 11th annual International Energy Fund solicitation. This workshop will review the application process.

19 June
CEC International Energy Fund Informational Workshop
Oakland, CA
Contact: Public Advisor's Office, Tel: (916) 654-4489 or (800) 822-6228
The Energy Technology Export Program announces its 11th annual International Energy Fund solicitation. This workshop will review the application process.

19-20 June
Web site: Emissions Trading Strategies 2002
London, United Kingdom
The meeting will feature 27 expert presentations from organizations including; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, BNFL, British Airways, Ecosecurities, Construction Products Association, DEFRA, KPMG, and the Danish Energy Agency.

19-21 June
Investment Conference: Business in Slovakia, 2002 and Beyond
Bratislava, Slovakia
Email: Mike Rogers, U.S. Department of Commerce
The U.S. Embassy and Pfizer Pharmaceuticals invite you to learn about opportunities in one of Europe's fastest growing investment markets.

20 June
Web site: Oregon-Washington Geothermal Working Group Meeting
Portland, OR
Email Gordon Bloomquist or Shannon Kelley

24-25 June
PDF file: Eurelectric Conference "Worldwide Energy Liberalisation: Building on Lessons Learned"
Leipzig, Germany

24-26 June
Web site: Distributed Energy Resources (DER) Regional Workshop
Chicago, IL
The primary focus of the workshop is to link Federal facility managers interested in installing DER projects with project developers, equipment manufacturers, and system designers.

29 June-5 July
Web site: VII World Renewable Energy Congress & Exhibition: "Renewables-World's Best Energy Option"
Cologne, Germany

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1-3 July
Web site: Renewable Energy Expo 2002
Koln Messe, Cologne, Germany

28 July-1 August
Web site: State Energy Program-Rebuild America Conference
New Orleans, LA

26 August-4 September
Web site: Johannesburg Summit 2002: the World Summit on Sustainable Development
Johannesburg, South Africa
The World Summit on Sustainable Development will bring together tens of thousands of participants, including heads of State and Government, national delegates, and leaders from non-governmental organizations, businesses, and other groups. The Summit will focus the world's attention on actions to achieve sustainable development.

1-11 September
Web site: International Geothermal Days: "Greece 2002"
Thessaloniki, Milos, and Santorini, Greece
Email: Professor Dr. Kiril Popovski or

5-7 September
Web site: International Workshop on Possibilities of Geothermal Energy Development in the Aegean Islands Region
Held in conjunction with Greece 2002
Milos island, Greece
Email: Professor Dr. Michael Fytikas

8-13 September
Deputy Secretarial Business Development Mission
Various locations, Canada
Contact: U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Business Liaison, Tel: (202) 482-1360
Deputy Secretary of Commerce Samuel Bodman will lead a senior-level business development mission to Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa, and Vancouver, Canada. The focus of the mission is to help approximately 15 U.S. companies explore business opportunities in Canada in key growth sectors including electric power generation. The application deadline is 28 June.

10-11 September
Web site: Renewable Energy in Maritime Island Climates (REMIC)
Belfast, Northern Ireland
Email: Mrs. C. Buckle, The Solar Energy Society

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17-20 September
Web site: 3rd National Small Farm Conference
Albuquerque, NM
The focus of this conference is to discuss ways to keep small farms economically viable, and to coordinate activities to help America's small farms, ranches, and rural communities survive and thrive in the 21st Century.

22-25 September
Web site: Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) 2002 Annual Meeting: The Baseload Renewable Resource
Reno, NV
This world renowned event provides an ideal opportunity for developers, suppliers, and support organizations to exhibit their equipment and services to the international geothermal community. The 2002 Annual Meeting will feature distinguished keynote speakers at its Opening Session and Technical and Poster Sessions on a broad range of timely geothermal resource and development topics. The meeting also features technical workshops, field trips, the popular Annual Golf Tournament and GRC Banquet, and the Geothermal Energy Association Geothermal Energy Trade Show, the world's largest gathering of vendors providing geothermal equipment and supplies.

30 September-4 October
Electric Power Mission to Vietnam and Thailand
Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and Bangkok, Thailand
Email: Andrew Collier, Energy Division - Basic Industries, U.S. Department of Commerce; Tel: (202) 482-0680
The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Basic Industries of the U.S. Department of Commerce, Kevin Murphy, or a designee will lead the electric power trade mission. The mission will include representatives from 8-15 U.S. electric power companies and equipment manufacturers interested in entering or expanding their presence in Vietnam and Thailand.

1-4 October
6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies
Kyoto, Japan
Organized by the GHGT-6 Secretariat
Email: Norifumi Matsumiya

2-3 October
West Coast Power
San Francisco, CA
Email: Greg Lesniewicz, Tel: (713) 463-9595, ext. 303

9-11 October
9th Annual Africa Upstream 2002
Cape Town, South Africa
Email: Babette van Gessel

18-20 October
Web site: Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries
Short Course held in conjunction with the XXXII International Association for Hydrogeologists Congress on Groundwater and Human Development
Mar del Plata, Argentina
The main aim of the course is to increase knowledge of geothermal energy resources by researchers, academicians, industrialists, agriculturalists, planners, and policy makers from around the world.

21-25 October
Web site: XXXII International Association for Hydrogeologists Congress on Groundwater and Human Development
Mar del Plata, Argentina

22-24 October
Web site: Sustainable Energy Expo 2002
Olympia, London

23-25 October
Web site: Distributed Energy Resources (DER) Regional Workshop
Boston, MA
The primary focus of the workshop is to link Federal facility managers interested in installing DER projects with project developers, equipment manufacturers, and system designers.

TBD November
East Africa Geothermal Workshop
Nairobi, Kenya
Email: Tom Hamlin, UNEP
The workshop will promote geothermal development in East Africa by presenting information about opportunities in Rift Valley countries and facilitating meetings with regional public and private sector energy representatives.

6-9 November
II International Renewable Energy Source Symposium
Santiago, Chile
Email: Ruben Ramos Heredia, Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar

13-14 November
International Energy Conference & Exposition
Reno, NV
Email: Petro-Tech Expos
The conference will address current and future energy-related issues and discuss solutions. Government representatives, along with all sectors of the energy industry, e.g., oil, natural gas, geothermal, solar, wind, and hydropower, will present new ideas, technologies, products, and services that will benefit the entire energy industry.

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2003
20-23 February
Web site: India International Clean Energy Expo 2003
Bangalore, India
The exposition will showcase clean energy technologies, products and services for worldwide buyers and sellers; feature India as a leading destination for clean energy products, services and technology; and highlight global and governmental clean energy policies and incentives.

Spring
Web site: Distributed Energy Resources (DER) Regional Workshop
Los Angeles, CA
The primary focus of the workshop is to link Federal facility managers interested in installing DER projects with project developers, equipment manufacturers, and system designers.

14-16 May
Web site: Energy and the Environment 2003
First International Conference on Sustainable Energy, Planning, and Technology in Relationship to the Environment
Halkidiki, Greece

25-30 May
Web site: European Geothermal Conference 2003
Szeged, Hungary
Scientific correspondence should be emailed to Dr. Franciska H. Karman

14-17 September
Web site: International Geothermal Conference: "Multiple Integrated Use of Geothermal Resources"
Reykjavik, Iceland
The main objectives of the IGC-2003 are to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas, experiences, and knowledge relating to engineering, environmental, financial, and scientific issues of multiform geothermal development; to demonstrate the indisputable benefits that may be attained from integrated and multi-use of geothermal energy with respect to environmental, socio-economic, and pure commercial considerations; and to identify barriers to widespread geothermal development, e.g., legal issues, risk, public attitude, and scarcity of funding, and their mitigation.

7-11 December
Web site: Fourth International Conference on Fluid and Thermal Energy Conversion
Bali Island, Indonesia

2004
16-26 August
Web site: 32nd International Geological Congress
Florence, Italy
Email: Matteo Moscatelli, Newtours SpA

5-10 September
Web site: 19th World Energy Congress
Sydney, Australia

2005
To be determined
World Geothermal Congress 2005
Antalya, Turkey
WGC2005 First Announcement

To have your event listed, contact the Editor.

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31 July 2002

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THE FINE PRINT

Green Green is produced for the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under Purchase Order No. K99-181018 and the U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies.

This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof.


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