Green Green:  Financing News for the U.S. Geothermal Industry

Volume 4, Number 2
31 May 2003

To Unsubscribe


New Tool Helps Entrepreneurs Develop Geothermal Resources Into Small Businesses

Bulgaria: Invitation for Prequalification for District Heating System


In Short

Upcoming Events

Other Geothermal and Related Calendars

Past Issues of Green Green

New Tool Helps Entrepreneurs Develop Geothermal Resources Into Small Businesses

The Geothermal Small Business Workbook gives geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools and information they need to understand geothermal applications—both direct use and small-scale power generation—and to write a business and financing plan.

Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A survey conducted by the Geo-Heat Center of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop these sites into thriving small businesses.

The Geothermal Small Business Workbook gives geothermal entrepreneurs the tools they need to succeed. Specifically, it:

  • Provides background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 MW) power generation geothermal projects;
  • Refers the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or project developer to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations;
  • Breaks down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps;
  • Leads the reader step-by-step through the process needed to structure a business and financing plan for a small geothermal project; and
  • Helps the reader develop a financing plan that can be adapted and taken to potential financing sources.
Geothermal Small Business Workbook

The Geothermal Small Business Workbook was written by Liz Battocletti of Bob Lawrence & Associates, Inc. with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program.

To get your copy, click on the graphic.


Bulgaria: Invitation for Prequalification for District Heating System

The Municipality of Sofia and the Ministry of Energy and Energy Resources ("Shareholders") are inviting private companies to manage and operate Toplofikacia Sofia ("TS"), a joint stock company wholly owned by the Shareholders.

TS is responsible for the production, transportation and supply of heat energy in Sofia and also sells electricity to the Bulgarian National Electricity Company. The company is presently undertaking to improve the quality of its District Heating Business and its financial position through a modernization program supported by loans from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, and other sources.

According to the 2001 report, "Geothermal Resources in Eastern Europe," Bulgaria is rich in low enthalpy geothermal resources; about 1,000 thermal aquifers and thermal springs have been discovered. Geothermal waters have been used since ancient times for healing, bathing, swimming pools, and hypocausts (a type of Roman floor heating system). The first modern Bulgarian systems were built after 1980 to heat buildings, greenhouses, and swimming pools. Bulgaria has 448 MWt in unexploited, proven resources, of which only 20% has been developed. The country has a total of 1,800 MWt in unexploited, probable, and possible resources.

Sofia has 47-90°C geothermal resources that are currently used for balneology, and may be suitable for district heating. Based on all geothermometer data, it is possible that water with a relatively high temperature can be found in the northern part of the city of Sofia (Hristov and Pentcheva, 1999).

The planned tendering schedule is as follows:

  • Request for Qualification (RFQ): 21 May 2003
  • Submission of Qualification: 20 June 2003
  • Results of Prequalification: 30 June 2003
  • Request for Proposals (RFP): 2 July 2003
  • Submission of Proposals: 8 September 2003
  • Contract Award: 10 October 2003

Prequalification is open to firms and consortia of firms from any country.

The RFQ may be obtained upon payment of a non-refundable fee of BGN 2,000 or equivalent in a convertible currency from the office listed below. Requests must clearly state "Request for Prequalification for Management Contract for the Sofia District Heating Company." Late documents will be rejected and returned unopened. Interested firms should contact the following office:

Lilia Mautner
Head of Department, District Heating and Energy
Sofia Municipality
3, Paris Street
1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
Tel.: (359) 9377511; (359) 981 10 66
Fax.: (359) 2 981 06 69


In Short


  • Government energy experts, scientists, engineers, and members of the private sector set a "challenging yet achievable target" to develop 1,000 MW of geothermal across Eastern Africa by 2020. The plan to dramatically increase the amount of electricity generated from geothermal resources was drawn up at a key conference held 9-11 April at the Nairobi headquarters of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). In total, Africa has up to 7,000 MW of untapped geothermal energy resources. For more information, see the UNEP Press Release.


  • The Sofia Energy Agency (SOFENA), a member of Association of Bulgarian Energy Agencies (ABEA), is a nonprofit, non-governmental organization dealing with energy efficiency problems. ABEA was founded to facilitate contacts between European Union and Bulgarian energy agencies. SOFENA and ABEA are interested in developing Bulgaria's geothermal resources (40-100ºC) for electricity or thermal energy generation., and would like to contact companies with expertise in these areas. For more information, contact Ivan Shishkov, Executive Director of SOFENA and Chairman of ABEA, Sofia 1505, "Oborishte" 44, Tel. [359-2] 943-4909, Fax: [359-2] 943-4401, or at

Central America

  • According to an article published in 28 May's La Prensa Grafica of El Salvador, the Japan's government and private sector are interested in participating in development projects being considered under the Puebla-Panama Plan ( PPP). The "VII Foro Japon-Centro America" was held in Panama on 27 May and attended by a Japanese delegation and the Deputy Foreign Relations Ministers of the Central American countries and the Dominican Republic. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss Japanese-Central American cooperation. Ken Shimanouchi, Director-General of the Latin American and Caribbean Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, indicated that Japan is not only interested in the PPP—a plan being promoted by the governments of Central America and Mexico—but also in evaluating the possibility of financing information technology and geothermal energy projects in the region (Source: Marcelo Lippmann, E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, at

European Union (EU)

  • According to the European Renewable Energy Export Council (EREC), the European Union will have an annual export market of $20 billion in renewable energy technologies (RET) by 2010. This global market will increase by 27% a year until 2009, and by 34% until 2020. A survey of industry participants identified Latin America, Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, Asia (excluding India and China), Russia, and the Caribbean as target export markets. The EREC's "European Renewable Energy Export Strategy" considered wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal, small hydro, and biomass technologies


  • In its 10 April session, the German Bundestag adopted a resolution calling for the Government to create an International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) to support and advance the active utilization of renewable energies on a global scale. The resolution asked the Government to appoint a commission of international members to assess the prospects of success, and to allocate funds in the 2004 national budget. Based on the model of the International Atomic Energy Agency, IRENA would support the non-commercial transfer of technology and promote a consistent proliferation of renewables around the world.


  • In mid-May, state-owned Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) announced its plans to buy out Unocal's Sarulla geothermal project after failing to agree on an electricity price. (Unocal offered 6.1¢/kWh in February.) Unocal North Sumatra Geothermal, Ltd. operates the Sarulla project, which was suspended in 1998 due to Indonesia's economic crisis. The Sarulla geothermal contract area, located on the island of Sumatra, was originally planned to have an initial installed capacity of 110 MW with potential of up to 390 MW.


  • Kenya's power supply will increase by 64 MW when the Olkaria II geothermal plant comes online later this year. Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen) Managing Director, Edward Njoroge and World Bank Country Director, Makhtar Diop toured the plant following KenGen's mid-April geothermal conference. According to Diop, Kenya has a potential of about 2,000 MW of geothermal energy in parts of the Rift Valley. He reaffirmed the bank's support for geothermal energy as a clean source of electricity. Olkaria II is financed by the World Bank, the European Investment Bank, KFW of Germany, and KenGen.

New Zealand

  • The Putauaki Trust and Mighty River Power announced on 15 April their agreement to assess and possibly develop the Kawerau geothermal field. Preliminary studies estimate that the field could generate up to 100 MW. Construction is unlikely to start before the fourth quarter of 2004 with generation capacity online in 2006. The Putauaki Trust, which has 500 shareholders and owns 2,482 acres, said in a statement that development of sustainable geothermal energy had benefits for the Eastern Bay of Plenty and all of New Zealand. "This is a natural resource with which we are blessed and now is the right time to start using it in a responsible way." The development will be aided by the Government's decision to transfer its current assets in the Kawerau field to Mighty River Power. State-owned Mighty River currently operates the 25-MWe Rotokawa and the 55-MWe Mokai geothermal power plants. Rotokawa is a joint venture between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust. Mokai is owned by the Tuaropaki Trust.


  • The newly rehabilitated Momotombo ORMAT® Geothermal Binary Power Plant was officially inaugurated on 19 February. The ceremony was the culmination of a four-year rehabilitation process, completed by the ORMAT Momotombo Power Company Inc., a subsidiary of ORMAT International, Inc. The project began in March 1999 with the signing of a 15-year Concession and Power Purchase Agreement between ORMAT and the Nicaraguan National Power Company. In 1999, the plant produced 8 MW; it now produces 35 MW. The increase was accomplished by rehabilitating the existing steam plant, drilling new wells, and installing an ORMAT® Energy Converter, which produces additional power from the heat previously wasted in the geothermal brine. The plant produces electricity at 4.79¢/kWh, saves Nicaragua the import of 90,000 tons of fuel per year, offsets a yearly emission of 120,000 tons of CO2, and eliminates the flow of polluting brine to Momotombo Lake. The $35-million rehabilitation was funded by an equity investment by ORMAT and long term limited recourse debt provided by Bank Hapoalim. The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency supported the financing.


  • The first geothermal power plant in West Africa could be located in Nigeria. One visible manifestation of a geothermal resources is a hot spring which is used for tourism and to distill water. The country's power industry is currently being restructured from a government monopoly to a market-based system. For more information, email Matthew Omotoso, Engineer, at

Papua New Guinea

  • Lihir Gold Limited commissioned a 6-MWe geothermal power plant, the first in the country, in April. Four wells, initially drilled to cool and depressurize the mine, provide the 100 tons of steam per hour the plant needs to operate at maximum capacity. The plant, which produces about 10% of the mine's total power needs, uses General Electric turbines and steam gathering systems designed and constructed by Century Resources. According to managing director Neil Swan, the geothermal plant will save the company over US$2 million in fuel oil costs a year. Lihir is among 40 identified geothermal resources identified in the country; 38 are unexplored.


  • Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) will increase the power capacity of its two geothermal power plants in Valencia, Negros Oriental by 20 MW to meet the expected demand for additional power supply by 2005. Palinpinon-1 and Palinpinon-2 have a current total combined power capacity of 192.5 MW. Power consumption in the Negros Oriental area is increasing 9% annually.

United States

  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) extended the deadline to apply for Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements program funds from 6 June to 27 June. The grant program is available to eligible rural small businesses, farmers, and ranchers to develop renewable energy systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their operations. Applicants must be U.S. citizens or legal residents and have demonstrated financial need. Grant funds may be used to pay up to 25% of the project costs. For more information, see the USDA News Release or the USDA Rural Development: Farm Bill 2002 webpage.
  • Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham announced on 24 April that DOE is making $1.3 million available to eight Native American tribes to advance the development of renewable energy technologies on tribal lands. Three of the eight projects—Taos Pueblo (NM), Viejas Tribal Government (CA), and Shoshone-Paiute Tribes (NV)—are feasibility studies. None of the projects specifically address geothermal energy. For more information, see the DOE Press Release.
  • A study by Platts Research & Consulting (PR&C) conservatively estimates that generating electricity from renewable sources can ultimately save consumers $5.20 per megawatt hour by eliminating fuel price risk. The study, "Power Price Stability: What’s It Worth?", comprehensively assesses the risks associated with possible natural gas price escalation and price volatility, along with the costs associated with guaranteeing gas delivery. The report is offered exclusively to members of PR&C’s Renewable Power Service. Platts is the energy information, research, consulting and marketing services business of The McGraw-Hill Companies.


Upcoming Events

June October
July November
August December
2004 2005

2-15 June
Website: International Summer School on Geothermal Geochemistry
Izmir, Turkey

3 June
Romanian Energy Sector Business Briefing
Washington, D.C.
Contact: Patterson Brown at (202) 482-4950 or

4 June
Romanian Energy Sector Business Briefing
Arlington, VA
Hosted by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency
Contact: Melanie Majors at (505) 822-1968 or at
Minister Dan Ioan Popescu (Ministry of Industry and Resources) and the Directors General of key state-owned energy companies will visit the United States to brief U.S. companies on their future plans.

4 June
Website: U.S. Export-Import Bank Exporter Seminar
Boston, MA
This seminar helps exporters increase their international sales by overcoming financing barriers. It also assists exporters in entering new, riskier markets, and improving their cash flow and bottom line. This engaging one-day seminar is designed exclusively for exporters.

5-7 June
Website: European Current Research on Fluid Inclusions (ECROFI XVII)
Budapest, Hungary

6 June
Romanian Energy Sector Business Briefing
Houston, TX
Hosted by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency
Contact: Melanie Majors at (505) 822-1968 or at
Minister Dan Ioan Popescu (Ministry of Industry and Resources) and the Directors General of key state-owned energy companies will visit the United States to brief U.S. companies on their future plans.

9-11 June
5th International Conference on the Analysis of Geological and Environmental Materials-Geoanalysis
Rovaniemi, Finland
Contact: Dr. Lars-Martin Westerberg at

15-20 June
Website: 2003 Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems
Dubrovnik, Croatia

16 June
Website: 6th Annual Indonesian Geothermal Association Meeting & Conference
Bandung, Indonesia
Contact: Janes Simanjutak at

16-18 June
Website: American Public Power Association 2003 National Conference
Nashville, TN

19-20 June
Website: 6th Annual Private Power in Central America
Miami, FL

19-20 June
Website: Greenhouse Gas Trading Symposium
Washington, D.C.

19-21 June
Website: Community Open House and Consumer Energy Expo
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden, CO

21-27 June
Europe and Eurasia Regional District Energy/Combined Heat and Power Orientation Visit
Philadelphia, PA
Hosted by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency
Contact: Olympia Brescia at (781) 641-2900, or at
A delegation from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Ukraine will attend the International District Energy Association's 2003 District Energy Conference in Philadelphia (see next entry). Delegates will brief U.S. companies on the upcoming privatization, restructuring, and upgrading of their respective utility industries.

22-24 June
Website: International District Energy Annual (IDEA) Conference & Trade Show
Philadelphia, PA

23-24 June
Website: Financing & Optimizing Renewable Energy Projects
Denver, CO

24-25 June
Website: Renewable Energy Summit
San Francisco, CA

24-27 June
Website: The Corporate Council on Africa 4th U.S.-Africa Business Summit
Washington, D.C.

26-27 June
Renewable Energy in Poland and Germany
Lodz, Poland
Contact: Bartosz Baszczak at

27-29 June
Website: RENEXPO 2003
Augsburg , Germany

30 June-2 July
Seminary of Geothermal Energy and Alternative Sources for Production of Energy
Valparaiso, Chile
Contact: Marcela Vasquez A. at

30 June-11 July
Website: XXII General Assembly of the IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics)
State of the Planet: Frontiers and Challenges
Sapporo, Japan


8-9 July
Website: American Council for Renewable Energy Annual Conference
"Renewable Energy in America: Building a National Strategy on State & Local Successes"
Washington, D.C.

13-17 July
First International Exergy, Energy, and Environment Symposium
Izmir, Turkey
Contact: Professor Arif Hepbasli at

14-15 July
Website: U.S. Export-Import Bank Seminars for Exporters
Washington, D.C.
Ex-Im Bank offers a two-day seminar designed to give exporters, federal, state, local officials, and others an in-depth knowledge of its trade financing products. Other government agencies involved in export finance will make presentations. The seminar also includes project finance, country risk analysis, legal issues, new policies, and administration and disbursement procedures of loans and guarantees. Case studies are used to reinforce understanding.

14-18 July
Website: Cities on Volcanoes 3
Hilo, HI

14-19 July
Website: Business Development Mission
Sofia, Bulgaria and Bucharest, Romania
Led by Deputy Secretary of Commerce Samuel Bodman and Assistant Secretaries Maria Cino (U.S. Commercial Service) and William Lash (Market Access and Compliance), the mission will offer U.S. businesses a unique forum in which to explore business partnerships.

21-25 July
Electric Power Mission to Vietnam and Thailand
Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Bangkok, Thailand
Email: Andrew R. Collier, Project Manager, Major Energy Projects Energy Division, U.S. Department of Commerce
The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy, Environment, and Materials, or a designee, will lead the electric power trade mission. The mission will include representatives of 8-15 U.S. electric power companies and equipment manufacturers interested in entering or expanding their presence in the two countries. The application deadline is 15 April.

28-29 July
Website: 4th Annual Financing Latin American Power Projects
Miami, FL


7-8 August
Website: Southwest Renewable Energy Conference
Flagstaff, AZ

8-10 August
Website: Southwest Renewable Energy Fair
Flagstaff. AZ
The Energy Fair coincides with the Southwest Renewable Energy Conference that will address national, tribal, state, and regional energy issues.

17-20 August
Website: Energy 2003 - Real World, Real Solutions
Lake Buena Vista, FL
Attendees include Federal, state, local and private sector energy managers, procurement officials, engineers and architects, energy service companies, transportation officials, utilities, and others involved in energy management around the country. Energy 2003 is your opportunity to learn about the latest cost-effective energy-saving, renewable energy, and water efficiency products and equipment. By applying the products, equipment, and services demonstrated at Energy 2003, you can improve the comfort, security, productivity and reliability of your facility and employees.

18-21 August
Website: Project Finance Workshop
New York, NY

20-22 August
Website: International Energy Program Evaluation Conference
Website: Call for Abstracts
Seattle, WA
Since 1984, the International Energy Program Evaluation Conference has represented excellence in the field of evaluating public and privately sponsored energy programs, products, and services. Conference proceedings are routinely used to improve program performance or to support the design and development of new energy services.

25-29 August
Website: Penrose Conference—Plume IV: Beyond the Plume Hypothesis
Hveragerdi, Iceland

26-28 August
Website: Mining Energy Solutions Conference
Elko, NV
The conference will bring together leaders and innovators in mining, energy efficiency, and energy supply. Hosted by the Department of Energy, Mining Industries of the Future, the Nevada Office of Industries of the Future, and several other Statewide organizations, this event will offer seminars led by industry experts who will present innovative mining technologies and energy solutions. Energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure solutions to mining's current energy challenges will be presented.


31 August-4 September
Website: 9th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics
Prague, Czech Republic

1-4 September
Website: International Geophysical Conference & Exhibition
Moscow, Russia

7-11 September
EURO-Conference on Rock Physics and Geomechanics:
Micromechanics, Flow, and Chemical Reactions
Kijkduin, The Netherlands
Contact: H.H.M.Zwiers at

9 September
GeoPowering the West State Summit
Boise, ID
Contact: Gordon Bloomquist at

10 September
Direct Use Workshop
Boise, ID
Sponsored by the Idaho Geothermal Working Group
Contact: Bob Neilson at

11 September
Idaho Geothermal Working Group Meeting
Boise, ID
Contact: Gerry Galinato at

11-13 September
Website: Short Course in Iceland
Reykjavik, Iceland

13-16 September
Website: Western Governors' Association Annual Meeting
Big Sky, MT

14-17 September
Website: International Geothermal Conference: "Multiple Integrated Use of Geothermal Resources"
Reykjavik, Iceland

14-17 September
Renewable Energy Symposium and Exhibition
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Contact: Dr. Samirah Abdul Rahman, Conference Secretariat at

15-19 September
Website: Preparing and Documenting Environmental Impact Analyses
Duke University
Durham, NC

17-18 September
Website: West Coast Energy Management Congress (EMC)
San Diego, CA

18 September
Arizona State Geothermal Working Group Meeting
Phoenix. AZ
Contact: Amanda Ormond at

22-26 September
Website: 7th International Conference on Gas Geochemistry
Freiberg, Germany

24-27 September
Website: Structures in the Continental Crust and Geothermal Resources
Siena, Italy
The meeting will promote a comparison among the different structural settings of geothermal systems in various parts of the world, and encourage a multi-disciplinary approach (e.g., rheology, magmatism, modeling, seismic, structural, geology, etc.) to the study of geothermal areas.

25 September-1 October
Email: SITH2003 / Société Internationale des Techniques Hydrothermales
Beppu, Japan


1-3 October
Website: Sustainable Energy Expo & Conference
Los Angeles, CA

1-4 October
Website: Electric Indonesia Series 2003
Jakarta, Indonesia

6-9 October
Website: 1st North Africa/Mediterranean Petroleum & Geosciences Conference and Exhibition
Tunis, Tunisia

10-12 October
2003 Shanghai International Expo on Renewable Energies
Shanghai, P.R. China

12-15 October
Website: Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) 2003 Annual Meeting:
"International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas"
Held in conjunction with the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE)
Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico

21-23 October
Website: Sustainable Energy 2003
Energy Efficiency Expo 2003
Environmental Solutions Expo 2003
London, United Kingdom

27-28 October
Website: 7th Annual Mexican Energy
Houston, TX


3-7 November
Website: Implementation of NEPA on Federal Lands and Facilities
Duke University
Durham, NC

12-13 November
Website: Fachkongress Geothermischer Strom-Start in eine neue Energiezukunft
Neustadt-Glewe, Germany

17-18 November
Website: 5th Annual Financing US Power Projects

18-19 November
Website: Sustainable Energy Asia
Energy Efficiency Asia

26-28 November
Energy Solution WORLD 2003
Held in conjunction with JETRO Environment Japan 2003
Chiba, Japan
Contact: Aaron Held at, or Kenji Kobayashi at
Commercial Specialists, U.S. Embassy, Tokyo

7-11 December
Website: Fourth International Conference on Fluid and Thermal Energy Conversion
Bali, Indonesia


29-30 January 2004
Website: 4th Annual Caribbean Energy
Miami, FL

16-19 February
Website: Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists Conference and Exhibition:
"Growth Through Innovation"
Adelaide, Australia
Growth of reserves, corporate growth, professional growth—all are underpinned by innovation. From von Wrede’s use of variation in the magnetic field to discover ores in the early 1900s to the development of modern day high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys; from seismic refraction profiles over Gulf Coast salt domes in the 1920s to today's time lapse 3-D seismic surveys over offshore fields—innovation in exploration geophysics delivers growth.

1-3 March
Website: POWER-GEN Renewable Energy
Las Vegas, NV

20-28 August
Website: 32nd International Geological Congress
Florence, Italy

28 August-3 September
Website: World Renewable Energy Congress VIII
Denver, CO
The World Renewable Energy Congress is the world's premiere conference on renewable energy. Held every two years, the Congress provides an international forum that attracts more than 800 delegates from over 100 countries. Abstracts will be accepted until 30 November 2003.

5-9 September
Website: 19th World Energy Congress
Sydney, Australia

24-29 April 2005
Website: World Geothermal Congress 2005
Antalya, Turkey
Abstracts due: December 2003
Draft papers due: May 2004
Final papers due: November 2004

To have your event listed, contact the Editor.


Other Geothermal and Related Calendars:


Green Green is produced by
Bob Lawrence & Associates, Inc.
Liz Battocletti, Editor

345 South Patrick Street
Alexandria, Virginia 22314 USA
Phone: 703 836 3654 / Fax: 703 836 6086

Columbia Memorial

Copyright © 2000-2003 Bob Lawrence & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved


Green Green is produced for the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under Purchase Order No. K99-181018, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program.

This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof.