Green Green:  Financing News for the U.S. Geothermal Industry


Volume 3, Number 4
31 July 2002

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HOT NEWS

Solicitations & RFPs

World Bank Projects

Asian Development Bank Projects

IN EVERY ISSUE

In Short

Upcoming Events

Other Geothermal and Related Calendars

Solicitations & RFPs

The following solicitations and requests for proposals (RFPs) may be of interest to the U.S. geothermal community:

Name Due Date (2002)
Funding to Develop Essential Community Facilities in Rural Communities with Severe Economic Depression 16 August
Distributed Power Program - Distribution and Interconnection Research and Development — Solicitation for Letters of Interest (LOI) No. RAT-2-32616 27 August

Due 16 August 2002

Funding to Develop Essential Community Facilities in Rural Communities with Severe Economic Depression. The USDA Rural Housing Service requests proposals for projects that develop essential community facilities in rural communities for eligible public entities, nonprofit corporations, and tribal governments with extreme high unemployment and severe economic depression.

Projects must serve the community as a whole and be needed for the orderly development of the community, e.g., provide an essential service to the residents. There is no set maximum loan limits with the Community Facilities direct and guaranteed loan programs. Projects cannot be private, commercial or business undertakings.

Pre-applications are due 3 May and 16 August 2002. All pre-applications selected for funding consideration will be notified by the State or field office. Applications are accepted on a continual basis until the $19 million in funding is exhausted.

For more information, see the USDA Rural Housing Service website, or contact Joseph Ben-Israel at (202) 720-1490.

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Due 27 August 2002

Distributed Power Program - Distribution and Interconnection Research and Development — Solicitation for Letters of Interest (LOI) No. RAT-2-32616. Distributed Energy Resources (DER) will play a key role in maintaining and enhancing the reliability, power quality, security, and environmental friendliness of the U.S. electric power system. The Distributed Power Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is soliciting an LOI from individual U.S. companies and/or U.S. teams to address a range of activities related to interconnecting and integrating distributed energy resources. These activities are organized into four categories as follows:

  1. Advanced Universal Interconnection Technology;
  2. Field Testing of Distributed Energy Technology for Interconnection Standards and Electrical Power Systems Configurations;
  3. Standards for Distributed Energy Resources System Integration, Interconnection, and Operation with Electric Power Systems; and
  4. Analysis and Research on Alternative Rates and Tariffs for Distributed Energy.

NREL intends to make up to 15 subcontract awards under this solicitation. The number of awards may vary based on the responses received and the availability of U.S. Department of Energy funds.

LOIs are due 27 August, 4:00 P.M. Mountain Time. The solicitation is available on the NREL website.

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World Bank Projects

The World Bank has several projects which may be of interest to U.S. geothermal developers and consultants:

  1. Turkey - Renewable Energy Project,
  2. Croatia - Renewable Energy Resources Project, and
  3. Poland - Kolo Geothermal Project.

These are evolving projects. Certain components may not be included in the final phase.

  1. TURKEY - Renewable Energy Project (Project ID TRPE72480).

    Implementing Agency:
    Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
    Inonu Bulvari 36
    Ankara, Republic of Turkey

    Contact Person:
    Nursen Tamer
    Tel: (90-312) 222-4059; 223-0572
    Fax: (90-312) 212-6984

    Total Project Cost:
    $445 million:
    World Bank-IBRD - $200 million
    Export credit (unidentified) - $111 million
    Foreign private commercial sources (unidentified) - $134 million.

    Objective:
    The objective of this project is to increase privately owned and operated distributed power generation from renewable sources ("qualified renewable power generation projects") in the Turkish Electricity Market.

    In addition to providing funding, the World Bank may be able to assist Turkey in attracting other sources of funds for renewable projects. One possible source of funds is the Global Environment Facility (GEF) which Turkey recently became eligible for.

    Bank Approval Date:
    8 July 2003

    World Bank Task Manager:
    James Sayle Moose
    Tel: (202) 473-3563
    Fax: (202) 614-1582


  2. CROATIA - Renewable Energy Resources Project (Project ID HRPE 71464).

    Implementing Agency:
    Croatian Development Bank
    Strossmayerov trg 9
    1000 Zagreb
    Tel: 385-1-45-91-666
    Fax: 385-45-91-721

    Total Project Cost:
    $27.43 million:
    Global Environment Facility - $6.00 million
    Local sources of borrowing country - $14.38 million
    Foreign private commercial sources (unidentified) - $7.05 million

    Objective:
    The project will start with the objective of assisting the Government in developing a rational policy framework for renewable energy. This includes defining national goals for implementation of renewable energy, based on a clear understanding of the costs and technical issues related to financing and installing projects.

    Technical assistance will include detailed resource assessments, environmental impact and public consultation for small hydro, information dissemination, financial and technical training, and assistance in design of regional energy centers and local development plans.

    Bank Approval Date:
    1 May 2003

    World Bank Task Manager:
    Rachid Benmessaoud
    Tel: (202) 473-2696
    Fax: (202) 614-1582


  3. POLAND - Kolo Geothermal Project (Project ID PLPE 78251).

    Implementing Agency:
    Miejski Zaklad Energetyki Cieplnej (MZEC)
    Ul. Przesmyk
    PL-62-600 Kolo, Poland

    Contact Person:
    Mariusz Skurzynski
    President, MZEC
    Tel: +48 63 261 7014
    Fax: +48 63 2261 7011
    Email: mzecprzesmyk@poczta.onet.pl

    Total Project Cost:
    $6.4 million

    Objective:
    The primary objective of the project is to support the development of an international market for the new commodity known as “Emission Reduction” (ER). In this particular case, the project will facilitate reduction of CO2 emissions in Poland through substitution of clean geothermal energy for polluting coal-fired heat generation. The PCF Kolo Geothermal Project is supported by the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF).

    The Kolo Geothermal Project is part of a larger effort to modernize the Kolo district heating system and to replace 65% of its coal-fired heat production with clean geothermal heat.

    Bank Approval Date:
    25 March 2003

    World Bank Task Manager:
    Helmut Schreiber
    Tel: (202) 202-473-6910
    Fax: (202) 614-0692 (attention: Victor Loksha)

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Asian Development Bank Projects

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has several projects which may be of interest to U.S. geothermal developers and consultants:

  1. Mongolia - Renewable Energy Development in Small Towns and Rural Areas,
  2. Fiji - Rural Electrification Development,
  3. Pacific Island countries and East Timor - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program for the Pacific, and
  4. Indonesia - Renewable Energy Development and Power Transmission Improvement Sector Project.

To be considered for employment, consultants must register on the ADB's DACON (Data on Consulting Firms) and DICON (Data on Individual Consultants) Systems. DACON and DICON registration can now be done online. The ADB will select a consultant for a Technical Assistance (TA) grant based on its prior Expression of Interest (EOI). An EOI can be transmitted on-line through the ADB's website.

U.S. firms may also send a notification copy of their EOIs to the Stewart Ballard in the U.S. Commercial Liaison Office for the ADB. This office works closely with the Office of the U.S. Executive Director to the ADB to increase American awareness of, and participation in, the ADB's activities.

For additional information, contact the ADB Project Officer listed in the summary. The U.S. Commercial Liaison Office to the ADB is ready to provide assistance to U.S. firms upon request. Its email address is manila.adb.office.box@mail.doc.gov.

  1. MONGOLIA - Renewable Energy Development in Small Towns and Rural Areas (Project Number MON 36255-01).

    Executing Agency:
    Energy Authority Department for Fuel and Energy,
    Ministry of Infrastructure
    P.O. Box 191
    Ulaanbaatar-20

    Contact:
    Dr. N. Enebish
    Senior Expert for Renewable Energy
    Tel: 976-11-328868
    Fax: 976-11-310612
    Email: enebish@magicnet.mn

    TA Amount:
    $400,000

    Objectives and Scope:
    The TA aims to: (i) review and analyze sectoral policies and institutional arrangements that relate to renewable energy development in small towns and rural areas drawing on national studies and selected international experience; (ii) develop two pilot trials taking into account comparative advantages of wind, solar or other renewable resources in selected localities; (iii) recommend capacity building and human resource development programs to upgrade skills and knowledge; and (iv) outline policy measures and propose options for promoting renewable energy development.

    Consulting Services:
    Consulting services yet to be determined.

    Recruitment of Consultants:
    Requirement for consulting services to be completed during fact-finding mission.

    Project Processing Stage:
    Beginning of Fact-finding Mission: June 2002.

    ADB Project Officer:
    Mr. Sohail Hasnie
    Infrastructure Division, ECRD
    Tel: (632) 632-6441

    In-country Commercial Officer:
    Laura Byergo
    Commercial Officer
    American Embassy, Ulaanbaatar


  2. FIJI - Rural Electrification Development (Project Number FIJ 35487-01).

    Executing Agency:
    Ministry of Works, Telecommunication, Energy, Road Transport and Shipping
    Nasilivata House, Kings road, Samabula
    Fiji

    Contact:
    Mr. Simione Draunidalo
    Permanent Secretary
    Tel.: (679) 384-111
    Fax: (679) 383-198

    TA Amount:
    $400,000

    Objectives and Scope:
    The TA will establish a development strategy and investment plan for rural electrification with special emphasis on extending the Fiji Electricity Authority electrical grid, building new diesel-power capacity, and providing renewable energy supply (e.g., solar photovoltaic, micro-hydro, and biomass).

    Consulting Services:
    The TA will be carried out by an international consulting engineering firm, supported by associated domestic consultants, with relevant experience in all aspects of the specified scope of work.

    Recruitment of Consultants:
    Recruitment of consultants expected to take place in December 2002.

    Project Processing Stage:
    Beginning of Fact-finding Mission: July 2002.

    ADB Project Officer:
    Mr. Luigi Bodda
    Pacific Operations Division
    Tel: (632) 632-6186

    In-Country Commercial Officer:
    Christopher Hodges
    Commercial Attaché
    American Embassy Suva


  3. PACIFIC ISLAND COUNTRIES & EAST TIMOR - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program for the Pacific (Project Number REG 36259-01).

    Executing Agency:
    Asian Development Bank

    TA Amount:
    $600,000

    Activity Type:
    Study

    Objectives and Scope:
    The development of renewable sources and energy efficiency practices in several Pacific Island countries has been limited due to low-income levels and lack of information about the technologies. In part the high upfront costs and the difficulties of small markets in providing alternatives at reasonable cost have prevented wider propagation of renewable energy in the Pacific Islands.

    The objectives of this proposal are to disseminate information on renewable energy sources and improve energy efficiency especially on the demand side, develop 5-6 demonstration programs (including maintenance plans), and design financing schemes and implementation mechanisms in the low-income Pacific Island countries and East Timor to assist promotion of renewable energy resources in a reliable and sustained manner as well as increase the efficiency of energy use.

    Consulting Services:
    Consulting Services yet to be determined

    Recruitment of Consultants:
    Requirements for Consulting Services to be completed during Fact-finding mission

    Project Processing Stage:
    Beginning of Fact-finding Mission: August 2002.

    ADB Project Officer:
    Mr. Daniele Ponzi
    Pacific Operations Division
    Tel: (632) 632-6118


  4. INDONESIA - Renewable Energy Development and Power Transmission Improvement Sector Project (Project Number INO 34100-01.

    Executing Agency:
    Perusahaan Umuum Listrik Negara (PLN)
    Jl. Trunojoyo
    135 Kebayoran Baru
    Jakarta 12160

    Contact:
    Mr. Eddie S. Widiono
    Director, Marketing and Distribution
    Fax: (62 21) 7251942
    Tel: (62 21) 7261875; 7250505 ext. 1023 or 1025

    Loan Amount:
    $300 million

    Objectives and Scope:
    The sector project will expand renewable energy use, address immediate concerns in the power transmission system, provide information and communication technology (ICT), and strengthen managerial capacity for unbundling of PLN.

    The project has five parts: (I) Renewable Energy, (II) Java Bali Transmission System, (III) Kalimantan Power Transmission Interconnection, (IV) ICT for Market for market, and (V) Strengthening Capacity.

    Services:
    Consultants will be recruited in accordance with ADB guidelines on the use of consultants. It is estimated that 117 person-months of international consulting services and 108 person-months of domestic consulting services will be required.

    Project Processing Stage:
    Fact-finding mission completed: 17 May 2002

    Project Officer:
    Mr. Anil Terway
    Tel: (632) 632-6412

    In-country Commercial Officer:
    Alice Davenport
    Senior Commercial Officer
    American Embassy, Jakarta

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In Short

  • The U.S. Trade and Development Agency (TDA) awarded a Definitional Mission to Commonwealth Power Corporation of Norfolk, Virginia. Commonwealth will evaluate a request for a feasibility study from AES Gener for an estimated 50 MW geothermal power project in Chile. Company representatives will travel to Chile in the next few weeks to begin assessment of the project. For more information, contact Jeremy Martin at TDA, Tel: (703) 875-4357.
  • POWER Engineers, Inc. is performing conceptual design work for cycle selection and estimating for a geothermal power plant approach for northern Chile, at a concession owned by ENAP, the gas company in Chile. This plant involves design and cycle/capital cost optimization for a reference design for a plant at a remarkably high altitude. POWER is also scheduled to present at the U.S. TDA's workshop on East African Geothermal Project Workshop in November 2002 in Nairobi. For more information, email Marshall Ralph.
  • Due to a severe power shortage and increasing electricity demand (10% per year), the Government of Indonesia (GOI) will let independent power producers (IPP) resume their canceled projects this year. The GOI announced in early July the completion of negotiations to restart "about a dozen" major projects that were suspended or stalled following the 1997-98 economic crisis. The former MidAmerican Dieng Geothermal Project, which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) transferred to the GOI after the GOI committed to repay OPIC's political risk insurance payment to the project, will be among those projects restarted.
  • With over 244 geothermal prospects scattered throughout Indonesia, it can be reliably stated that the country has high-enthalpy geothermal resources of at least 20,000 MW of electric power potential. By December 2002, the country will have increased its geothermal electric power generation capacity to 807 MW...Before Indonesia's 1997 financial crisis, it was expected that the country would achieve 1,200 MW of installed geothermal power plant capacity by the end of 1999, and more than 3,000 MW by 2006. Since the crisis, the Indonesian government postponed and reassessed 19 IPPs (Source: "Geothermal Indonesia: Current Status of Geothermal Energy Development," by Riki F. Ibrahim, Geothermal Bulletin, March/April 2002, pp. 77-78)
  • British Energy Minister Brian Wilson announced the formation of a new government unit, "Renewables UK," in April. Renewables UK will help UK manufacturers benefit from the rapidly growing worldwide sustainable energy market. According to Wilson: "Renewables UK is about maximizing the benefits of the renewable energy industries to the UK in terms of manufacturing, exporting, and jobs. There are strong parallels with the position of the UK's oil and gas industry some 30 years ago. If the same, concerted, strategic approach is applied to the renewables sector as was applied to oil and gas, we can reap very substantial benefits for this country." For more information, see Minister Wilson's speech.
  • The European Union (EU) produced 4.8 TWh of electricity from geothermal energy in 2000. Several countries are planning to increase their installed capacities by 2010—Italy to 912, Greece to 210 MWe, Portugal to 24 MWe, and France to 19 MWe. This will bring the EU's total installed capacity to 1,165 MWe by 2010, exceeding White Paper objectives. For more information, see the report entitled: "The 2001 Overview of Renewable Energies" (in PDF format)."

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Upcoming Events

August October December
September November 2003

2 August
Opportunities for Investment and Sales in the Slovak Energy Market
U.S. Trade and Development Agency (TDA)
Arlington, VA
RSVP to Scott Greenip, TDA Country Manager for Europe
Tel: (703) 875-4357, Email: sgreenip@tda.gov
Slovenske Elektrarne, the Slovakian state-owned electricity company, is in the process of privatization. The company is very receptive to U.S. involvement and investment. This briefing will introduce U.S. firms to these opportunities and present the results of two recent TDA-funded feasibility studies with Slovenske Elektrarne.

8-9 August
Website: Southwest Renewable Energy Conference
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, AZ
The conference will focus on national, tribal, state, and local renewable energy projects, policies, and technologies, and provide an opportunity for elected officials, policymakers, businesses, utilities, and renewable energy advocates to meet, learn, and debate issues surrounding the transition from fossil fuels to clean, renewable energy. The conference is being held in cooperation with the fourth annual Southwest Renewable Energy Fair hosted by the Greater Flagstaff Economic Council.

26 August-4 September
Website: World Summit on Sustainable Development
Johannesburg, South Africa
The summit will bring together tens of thousands of participants, including heads of State and Government, national delegates, and leaders from non-governmental organizations, businesses, and other groups. The Summit will focus the world's attention on actions to achieve sustainable development.

1-11 September
Website: International Geothermal Days: "Greece 2002"
Thessaloniki, Milos, and Santorini, Greece
Email: Professor Dr. Kiril Popovski or

5-7 September
Website: International Workshop on Possibilities of Geothermal Energy Development in the Aegean Islands Region
Held in conjunction with Greece 2002
Milos island, Greece
Email: Professor Dr. Michael Fytikas

10-11 September
Website: Renewable Energy in Maritime Island Climates
Belfast, Northern Ireland
Email: Mrs. C. Buckle, The Solar Energy Society

16-19 September
Website: National Summit on Emerging Tribal Economies
Phoenix, AZ

17-20 September
Website: 3rd National Small Farm Conference
Albuquerque, NM
The conference will discuss ways to keep small farms economically viable, and to coordinate activities to help America's small farms, ranches, and rural communities survive and thrive in the 21st Century.

22-25 September
Website: Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) 2002 Annual Meeting: The Baseload Renewable Resource
Reno, NV
This world renowned event provides an ideal opportunity for developers, suppliers, and support organizations to exhibit their equipment and services to the international geothermal community. The 2002 Annual Meeting will feature distinguished keynote speakers at its Opening Session and Technical and Poster Sessions on a broad range of timely geothermal resource and development topics. The meeting also features technical workshops, field trips, the popular Annual Golf Tournament and GRC Banquet, and the Geothermal Energy Association Geothermal Energy Trade Show, the world's largest gathering of vendors providing geothermal equipment and supplies.

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23-24 September
Financing Mexico's Environmental Infrastructure
Mexico City, Mexico
For more information: Tel: (202) 565-3902 or email: mexicoconference@exim.gov
Meet Mexican municipalities seeking to purchase environmental infrastructure products, services, and technologies for renewable energy; utilize low-risk joint financing from the U.S. Export-Import Bank and BANOBRAS; and take advantage of the U.S. Pavilion at Enviro-Pro 2002.

30 September-2 October
Website: 7th National Green Power Marketing Conference
Washington, D.C.

30 September-4 October
Electric Power Mission to Vietnam and Thailand
Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and Bangkok, Thailand
Email: Andrew Collier, Energy Division - Basic Industries, U.S. Department of Commerce; Tel: (202) 482-0680
The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Basic Industries of the U.S. Department of Commerce, Kevin Murphy, or a designee will lead the electric power trade mission. The mission will include representatives of 8-15 U.S. electric power companies and equipment manufacturers interested in entering or expanding their presence in Vietnam and Thailand.

1-4 October
6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies
Kyoto, Japan
Organized by the GHGT-6 Secretariat
Email: Norifumi Matsumiya

2-3 October
West Coast Power
San Francisco, CA
Email: Greg Lesniewicz, Tel: (713) 463-9595, ext. 303
West Coast Power will examine current challenges and opportunities for the power industry in the western U.S., with a focus on political, economic, and technical operations.

9-11 October
9th Annual Africa Upstream 2002
Cape Town, South Africa
Email: Babette van Gessel

9-11 October
Website: World Energy Engineering Congress
Featuring Renewable Energy Technology 2002
Atlanta, GA

11-17 October
Website: 2nd Iceland Deep Drilling Project IDDP/ICDP Geothermal Workshop
Various locations, Iceland

15-17 October
Website: Renewable Realities
Orkney, Scotland
This is the first international conference to focus on the practical aspects of renewable energy systems in real situations. The conference will take place in Orkney which has a history of research and commercial wind developments.

18-20 October
Website: Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries
Short Course held in conjunction with the XXXII International Association for Hydrogeologists Congress on Groundwater and Human Development
Mar del Plata, Argentina
The main aim of the course is to increase knowledge of geothermal energy resources by researchers, academicians, industrialists, agriculturists, planners, and policy makers from around the world.

21-25 October
Website: XXXII International Association for Hydrogeologists Congress on Groundwater and Human Development
Mar del Plata, Argentina

22-24 October
Website: Sustainable Energy and Energy Efficiency Expo 2002
Olympia, London, United Kingdom

23-24 October
Website: Renewable Power Delivery
Renewable Power Association Conference at the Sustainable Energy and Energy Efficiency Expo (see above)
Olympia, London, United Kingdom

23-25 October
Website: Distributed Energy Resources (DER) Regional Workshop
Boston, MA
The primary focus of the workshop is to link Federal facility managers interested in installing DER projects with project developers, equipment manufacturers, and system designers.

29-30 October
Website: 15th NREL Industry Growth Forum
Albany, NY
The event will focus on the emerging clean energy market. It will bring together over 100 financiers, e.g., venture capitalists, angel investors, commercial and investment bankers, and private lenders; representatives of the nation's largest and most innovative energy companies; and early and later stage entrepreneurial firms.

29-31 October
Email: Beijing International Geothermal Symposium
Beijing, China
Email: Jiurong Liu, Beijing Geothermal Engineering Institute
The subject of the symposium is: "Geothermal Contributes to the 2008 Olympics in Beijing." Topics include direct utilization, sustainable development, tentative plans for Olympic Park, and the status of geothermal development worldwide.

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TBD November
East Africa Geothermal Workshop
Nairobi, Kenya
Email: Tom Hamlin, UNEP
The workshop will promote geothermal development in East Africa by presenting information about opportunities in Rift Valley countries and facilitating meetings with regional public and private sector energy representatives.

4-8 November
Website: 3rd Earth Sciences National Conference
Puerto Vallarta, Mexico
The international geothermal community is invited to submit 350-word (in Spanish or English) abstracts on all geothermal topics by 15 August.

6-8 November
Email: 20 Jahre Tiefe Geothermie in Deutschland
Waren, Germany

6-9 November
II International Renewable Energy Source Symposium
Santiago, Chile
Email: Ruben Ramos Heredia, Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar

7-9 November
Website: 2002 APEC Exhibition on New & Renewable Energy Technology
Seoul, South Korea
Email: Korea Institute of Energy Research

13-15 November
Website: International Energy Conference & Exposition
Reno, NV
The conference will address current and future energy-related issues and discuss solutions. Government representatives, along with all sectors of the energy industry, e.g., oil, natural gas, geothermal, solar, wind, and hydropower, will present new ideas, technologies, products, and services that will benefit the entire energy industry.

13-15 November
Website: 24th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop
Auckland, New Zealand

15-17 November
Website: NW Energy Coalition Fall Board Meeting
Portland, OR

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2003
20-23 February 2003
Website: India International Clean Energy Expo 2003
Bangalore, India
The exposition will showcase clean energy technologies, products, and services for worldwide buyers and sellers; feature India as a leading destination for clean energy products, services, and technology; and highlight global and governmental clean energy policies and incentives.

12-13 March
Email: 24th Annual PNOC-EDC Geothermal Conference
Manila, Makati City, Philippines

Spring
Website: Distributed Energy Resources (DER) Regional Workshop
Los Angeles, CA
The primary focus of the workshop is to link Federal facility managers interested in installing DER projects with project developers, equipment manufacturers, and system designers.

14-16 May
Website: Energy and the Environment 2003
First International Conference on Sustainable Energy, Planning, and Technology in Relationship to the Environment
Halkidiki, Greece

25-30 May
Website: European Geothermal Conference (EGC) 2003
Szeged, Hungary
EGC 2003 is organized by the Hungarian Geothermal Association, the Romanian Geothermal Association, the Slovakian Geothermal Association, and select companies. The conference will include a technical program, an exhibition, field trips, and social events. Scientific correspondence should be emailed to Dr. Franciska H. Karman

14-17 September
Website: International Geothermal Conference: "Multiple Integrated Use of Geothermal Resources"
Reykjavik, Iceland
The main objectives of the IGC-2003 are to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas, experiences, and knowledge relating to engineering, environmental, financial, and scientific issues of multiform geothermal development; to demonstrate the indisputable benefits that may be attained from integrated and multi-use of geothermal energy with respect to environmental, socioeconomic, and pure commercial considerations; and to identify barriers to widespread geothermal development, e.g., legal issues, risk, public attitude, and scarcity of funding, and their mitigation.

24-27 September
Website: Structures in the Continental Crust and Geothermal Resources
Siena, Italy

25 September-1 October
Email: SITH2003 / Société Internationale des Techniques Hydrothermales
Beppu, Japan

12-15 October
Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) 2003 Annual Meeting
Held in conjunction with the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE)
Morelia, Mexico
Contacts (email): Ted Clutter, Jim Combs, or Gerardo Hiriart

7-11 December
Website: Fourth International Conference on Fluid and Thermal Energy Conversion
Bali Island, Indonesia

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2004
20-28 August 2004
Website: 32nd International Geological Congress
Florence, Italy

5-10 September
Website: 19th World Energy Congress
Sydney, Australia

2005
24-29 April 2005
Website: World Geothermal Congress 2005
Antalya, Turkey

To have your event listed, contact the Editor.

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THE FINE PRINT

Green Green is produced for the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under Purchase Order No. K99-181018 and the U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program.

This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof.


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