Green Green:  Financing News for the U.S. Geothermal Industry

Volume 2, Number 4
24 August 2001


On the Eve of the GRC Annual Meeting 2001...

PNOC-EDC to Develop Northern Negros Geothermal Project

International Geothermal Reports Now Available on the Web


In Short

Upcoming Events

Other Geothermal and Related Calendars

Geothermal Project Pipeline

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On the Eve of the GRC Annual Meeting 2001...

The Geothermal Resources Council's (GRC) 2001 Annual Meeting will take place 26-29 August at the Town and Country Resort and Convention Center in San Diego, California.

The GRC Annual Meeting is the largest gathering of the international geothermal research and development community in the United States. Over 440 participants from 26 countries attended the meeting last year.

Under the theme, "Geothermal Energy for the Americas," the GRC 2001 Annual Meeting will emphasize both power and direct-use development in the United States, Mexico, and Latin America. The event will feature distinguished keynote speakers at its Opening Session, Technical and Poster sessions on a broad range of timely geothermal resource and development topics, the Geothermal Energy Association Trade Show, the popular Annual Banquet, technical workshops, and a pre-meeting golf tournament.

The meeting will include a special half-day Geothermal Project Finance Seminar on Tuesday, 28 August, 8:00 AM-12:00 PM. Domestic and international experts on renewable and geothermal energy project financing will talk about:

  • Legal Aspects of Domestic Geothermal Projects,
  • Real Estate Considerations in Geothermal Project Finance,
  • Geothermal Resource Considerations in Project Finance,
  • Financing Issues for Domestic Geothermal Projects,
  • Steam Purchase Contracts - A Singular Mexican Experience,
  • Financing Issues for International Geothermal Projects,
  • Domestic and International Project Finance,
  • International Environmental Project Financing,
  • International Geothermal Project Upstream Project Development Facility, and
  • Overcoming Obstacles to Geothermal Projects in Developing Countries.

For additional information, see the GRC 2001 Annual Meeting web page.


PNOC-EDC to Develop Northern Negros Geothermal Project

The Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) will develop a geothermal field in Negros Occidental. Scheduled to go on-line in 2003, the Northern Negros Geothermal Project (NNGP) will have an installed capacity of 40 MWe, making the Philippines the world's largest producer of geothermal power.

The NNGP will help reduce a projected power deficit in Negros Occidental province and supply a portion of the 1,310 MWe demanded by the Visaya grid. It will be operated as a merchant plant.

Mt. Kanlaon

Environmental concerns may slow the development of the NNGP. Opponents, including the Negros Caucus of Development NGOs, fear that geothermal exploration near Mt. Kanlaon, a national protected area, will decrease the country's already dwindling forest cover and harm the area's biodiversity.

Energy Secretary Vincent Perez is committed to working with environmental groups and addressing their concerns. He stressed the need for the country to develop its geothermal resources, noting that "It is our contribution to reducing the world's greenhouse gases to solve the problem of global warming." The NNGP will save US$15 million in the import of crude oil per year.

The NNGP will be financed by a US$110 million loan loan from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), under the 21st Yen Loan Package. The loan is untied financing and open to non-Japanese firms.

West Japan Engineering Consultants, Inc. (West JEC) is providing technical assistance for the project.

The Office of Finance, International Trade Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce provides assistance to U.S. companies seeking information on, and assistance with, obtaining untied aid to finance U.S. exports.

Mt. Kanlaon

Public bidding has not begun on the NNGP. The project will be open to private investment, either under a Build-Transfer-Operate (BTO) or a turnkey with a separate O&M contract. Construction is scheduled to start in September. For additional information, contact Sergio Apostol, Chairman, President, and CEO of PNOC-EDC:

Merritt Road, Fort Bonifacio, Taguig
Metro Manila, Philippines
Tel.: (632) 893-6001 / (632) 893-1320
Fax: (632) 815-2747
General email:

Additional support for U.S. business may be obtained from the U.S. Embassy in Manila:

Cleo Alday
Commercial Specialist
Tel.: (632) 888-6619 / (632) 888-4088 x 5829
Fax: (632) 888-6606

PNOC-EDC has also signed a memorandum of understanding with Kyushu Electric of Japan to jointly develop 40 MWe at the Rangas-Tanawon geothermal power project in Bicol.


International Geothermal Reports Now Available on the Web

International geothermal market assessment reports and project financing tools for the U.S. geothermal industry are now available on the Web.

The "International Geothermal Reports & Newsletters" Web Page contains two editions of the Geothermal Financing Workbook, past issues of Green Green, and reports on geothermal resources in 41 countries:

1. Albania 22. Martinique
2. Argentina 23. Mexico
3. Bolivia 24. Montserrat
4. Bosnia-Herzegovina 25. Netherlands Antilles
5. Bulgaria 26. Nicaragua
6. Chile 27. Panama
7. China 28. Peru
8. Colombia 29. Poland
9. Costa Rica 30. Romania
10. Croatia 31. Russia
11. Czech Republic 32. Saint Kitts & Nevis
12. Dominica 33. Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
13. Ecuador 34. Saint Lucia
14. El Salvador 35. Slovakia
15. FYR of Macedonia 36. Slovenia
16. Grenada 37. Taiwan
17. Guadeloupe 38. Turkey
18. Guatemala 39. Ukraine
19. Honduras 40. Venezuela
20. Hungary 41. Yugoslavia
21. Jamaica

The reports and Geothermal Financing Workbooks are in PDF format and may be downloaded from the web page or saved to a hard drive. (The free Adobe® Acrobat® Reader® software may be obtained from Adobe's web site.) Issues of Green Green are in HTML and may be viewed with web browsing software.

BL&A International Geothermal Reports & Newsletters Web Page

Authored since 1996, the reports, workbooks, and newsletters were written by Bob Lawrence & Associates, Inc. for Sandia National Laboratories, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies, Peter Goldman, Director.


In Short

  • The California Energy Commission (CEC) has awarded grants to six projects that will continue to tap California's enormous geothermal energy resources. The CEC made the funds available to maximize the production of steam to drive geothermal plant turbines in the Geysers, Mammoth Lakes, Glass Mountain, and Caldera geothermal research areas of California. State funding will also refine the extraction of valuable minerals from geothermal brines in the Salton Sea. For more information, see the CEC press release.
  • Investment banker Edgardo del Fonso will head the newly created Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corp. (PSALM), the agency charged with privatizing the state-run National Power Corp. (NPC). Under the Electricity Industry Reform Act of 2001 (R.A. 9136), auctions will begin in 2002, 70% of the assets must be sold by 2004, and 100% of all generating assets must be sold by 2009. The Philippine Government expects to raise up to $10 billion from the sale of NPC's assets.
  • While acknowledging that the Government of Mexico cannot provide the estimated $50 billion needed to expand and upgrade the country's power grid over the next decade, President Vicente Fox said that he does not plan to privatize the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE). Rather, Fox is expected to send Congress an electricity reform package which would include a plan to break up the CFE into divisions so that private companies could better compete. Experts say Mexico could face electricity blackouts as early as 2004 if it does not increase its 35,000- MWe installed capacity.
  • Effective 9 August, the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank) is open for business in Albania for short-, medium-, and long-term financing of U.S. exports to Albania's public and private sectors. Ex-Im Bank's decision to open for business in Albania followed the Interagency Country Risk Assessment System's recent revision of risk ratings for Albania. Albania has made major progress in reestablishing macroeconomic and fiscal stability following the 1997 financial crisis and the 1999 Kosovo refugee crisis. Ex-Im Bank support for public sector transactions will be limited to transactions that commit the full faith and credit of the Albanian government. Ex-Im Bank will also consider structured financing arrangements such as limited recourse project finance.
  • The World Bank has given a $6.0 million grant to Serbia's power monopoly, Elektroprivreda of Serbia (EPS). Due to the 1999 NATO bombing campaign, mismanagement, corruption, lack of maintenance, and drought, the Serbian power system is near collapse. Although the World Bank rarely makes grants, according to Elaine Patterson, World Bank Country Manager in Belgrade, "The World Bank is making this money available to EPS because we realize that it has been a very long time that the investment in power system in Serbia has been neglected." A total of $254.4 million has been pledged by various donors to restore Serbia's energy sector.
  • The third annual Energy Globe Award competition is underway. Organized by O.Ö. Energiesparverband, an Austrian nonprofit which works to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources and new energy technologies, the Energy Globe Award 2002 will recognize the best projects in the fields of energy efficiency and renewable energy worldwide. Project submissions should include a short summary and description of the project, a contact person, pictures, and other documentation, and be sent to O.Ö. Energiesparverband by 24 October 2001. The prize is 10,000 Euro per category. Winning projects will be presented at the World Sustainable Energy Day 2002 held 7-8 March in Wels, Austria.


Upcoming Events

September November
October December
3-7 September
Email: 6th International Conference on Rare Gas Geochemistry
Cuernavaca, Mexico

5-7 September
Web site: 7th Kazakhstan International Mining and Metallurgy Exhibition and Conference
Almaty, Kazakhstan

16-20 September
Web site: U.S.- Africa Business Summit: Building Global Partnerships
Email: David E. Malloy
Philadelphia, PA
The event's main goal is to facilitate export and import trading; identify agents, representatives, and distributors; explore joint venture partnerships and strategic alliances, and promote foreign direct investment in Africa. The summit will feature an entire track of workshops on Renewable Energy Issues.
More than 300 African companies have confirmed participation in the Summit. Many of these companies are from the Sahel region of West Africa, a part of the world with growing interest in alternative energy solutions. Other participants in the summit will include heads of African chambers of commerce, bankers, business groups, American companies, and U.S. and African government officials.

16-22 September
Web site: U.S.-China Renewable Energy Business Workshop and Study Tour
Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, and Inner Mongolia, China
Email: Jean Ku or Debra Lew of NREL, or Lee Gebert, DOE
The workshop and study tour will provide a unique opportunity to interact with established Chinese companies through one-on-one business partnership meetings and site visits to factories and renewable energy installations. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and China’s Center for Renewable Energy Development.

17-21 September
Web site: International Geothermal Days: "Germany 2001"
Bad Urach, Germany
Email: Prof. Kiril Popovski or Dr. Burkhard Sanner

17-21 September
Manufacturing Matchmaker Trade Delegation
Monterrey and Mexico City, Mexico
Email: Yvonne Jackson, Project Manager, Manufacturing Matchmaker 2001, U.S. Department of Commerce
The U.S. Department of Commerce, in cooperation with the National Association of Manufacturers, is organizing a Manufacturing Matchmaker Trade Delegation to Mexico. The manufacturing industry, including electrical power systems, is one of the fastest growing sectors in Mexico.
The program will match U.S. companies with potential business partners in Mexico. The U.S. Department of Commerce's Commercial Service will do all the background work, handle the logistics, and provide each participant with a personalized schedule of private business meetings. The participation fee is $2,850 per company.

20-21 September
Web site: Energy Investor Summit: Winning Technologies and Investment Outlook for the "New Power Economy"
San Francisco, CA
The conference will consider funding criteria for start-ups; determining strategic value and defendable business plans; managing and meeting capital requirements; overcoming legal, tax and regulatory obstacles; and developing exit strategies. In addition, there will be some discussion on the M&A; environment, financing options, funding process, valuations, partnering, and strategic alliances.

21-25 September
Web site: Power Trends 2001: 4th International Exhibition on New Trends in Technologies for Energy and Power Engineering
Manila, Philippines
Organized by Interfama International Pte Ltd., Singapore
Email: Interfama

2-5 October
Web site: 3rd International Congress on Environmental Indices and Indicators Systems Analysis Approach INDEX2001: Quality of Life Indicators
Rome, Italy

4-5 October
Web site: Distributed Generation
Boston, MA
Presented by the Cogeneration and Competitive Power Institute of the Association of Energy Engineers

4-5 October
Web site: Renewable Energy for a Competitive Europe: International Partnering Event
Wels, Austria

8-10 October
Email: Power Generation and Sustainable Development
Liege, Belgium

14-16 October
Web site: Secretarial Business Development Mission to Russia
U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Business Liaison, Tel.: (202) 482-1360, Fax: (202) 482-4054
At the request of President Bush, Secretary of Commerce Donald L. Evans will lead a senior-level business development mission to Moscow. The focus of the mission is to assist U.S. businesses in exploring trade and investment opportunities resulting from the positive political and economic changes that have taken place in Russia. The delegation will include approximately 15 U.S.-based senior executives of small-, medium-, and large-sized U.S. firms representing, but not limited to, the following key growth sectors: aerospace; agribusiness; automotive parts and equipment; energy; engineering, technology and service industries.
Applications should be submitted to the Office of Business Liaison by 5 September.

15-17 October
Web site: Southeast Europe Economic Forum
Sofia, Bulgaria

16-17 October
Web site: Investing in Energy-Tech: Winning Technologies and the Investment Outlook for the "New Energy Economy"
Houston, TX
Network with prominent investors and industry decisionmakers while learning about the new ideas and innovative strategies in the power tech industry. Various technologies, e.g., distributed generation, wind, solar PV, biomass, geothermal, fuel cells, coalbed methane, oil, and gas, as well as business-to-business software and eBusiness solutions for energy will be featured.

21-25 October
Web site: 18th World Energy Congress - Energy Markets: The Challenges of the New Millennium
Buenos Aires, Argentina
This largest and most important global energy event will gather over 5,000 delegates, including ministers, regulators, CEOs of major energy companies, other industry operators, senior academic researchers, and consultants from approximately 50 international organizations and financing institutions.
The Buenos Aires Congress will be the first WEC Congress of the new millennium and the first to be held in Latin America.

24-26 October
Web site: World Energy Engineering Congress Conference & Expo (WEEC 2001)
Atlanta, GA
The conference program includes 12 concurrent conference tracks, 48 sessions, and over 200 speakers. WEEC 2001 also features three companion programs: GeoExchange 2001, Combined Heat and Power 2001, and Energy Service and E-commerce. The conference program spans the gamut of leading edge technologies, efficiency improvement strategies and cogeneration and on-site generation.

24-26 October
Web site: GeoExchange 2001
Atlanta, GA
The program will be held in conjunction with WEEC 2001. It is designed for end users, consultants, equipment specifiers, and energy engineers and managers who are actively seeking innovative technologies to slash expenses and improve operations.

30 October-2 November
Web site: Power2001 North America: Evaluating Competitive Development & Financing Strategies in North America's Evolving Power Markets
Scottsdale, AZ
Includes Pre-Conference U.S. Regional Summit (30 October), and Post-Conference Golf Tournament (2 November).

1-2 November
Web site: 5th Annual Mexican Energy 2001
Houston, TX
Mexico's power demand growth is expected to be 10% per year. To meet that demand, generation capacity will have to grow approximately 71% through 2008.

4-6 November
Web site: Joint International Conference & Business Meet: Non Fossil Fuel Generation
New Delhi, India
Jointly organized by the Ministry of Power, Government of India, and Confederation of Indian Industry, the conference will discuss and deliberate issues related to development of hydro, nuclear and renewable based generation in India.

4-8 November
Web site: 2nd World Conference on Technology Advances for Sustainable Development
Cairo, Egypt
The conference combines the 2nd International Conference on Renewable Energy and Environment Protection Technologies, and the 5th International Conference on Solar Electricity: Photovoltaics, Wind, and Solar Thermal Technologies.

5-6 November
Web site: Eyeforenergy Green Convention
Brussels, Belgium
What are the structural and economic forces driving investment in the alternative energy market? How are the energy majors already benefiting from green energy opportunities and how can your company develop a successful sustainable energy strategy? Get answers to these critical questions and listen to case studies from industry experts such as the European Commission, Enel, BG Group, and Edison.

7-9 November
Web site: 23rd New Zealand Geothermal Workshop
Auckland, New Zealand

7-10 November
Renewable Energy Indonesia 2001
Jakarta, Indonesia
Email: Stephen Luff, Overseas Exhibition Services

11-14 November
Web site: Distribution 2001
Brisbane, Australia
Email: Noela Cain, Commercial Specialist-Energy, U.S. Commercial Service, Melbourne, American Consulate General

21-23 November
Web site: Geothermal Energy in Underground Mines
Ustron, Poland
Email: Zbigniew Malolepszy, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia

22-27 November
Web site: Shanghai International Industry Fair
Shanghai, China

26-29 November
Web site: 2001 World Sustainable Energy Expo
Adelaide, Australia

28-29 November
Web site: Energy Venture Fair II
Houston, TX
Approximately 75 up-and-coming growth companies in areas including distributed generation, emissions control, energy e-commerce, energy information management, power quality and reliability, renewables, virtual utilities and infrastructure will meet with venture capitalists and strategic investors to explore the significant business opportunities in today's electric power sector, one of the most rapidly growing destinations for private equity investment dollars.

6-9 December
Enexpo Turkiye
Ankara, Turkey
Email: Farshid Bagherian, General Manager, S.S.D professional Group
Fax: [90] (312) 213-8532


7-8 March 2002
Web site: World Sustainable Energy Day 2002
Wels, Austria
The conference will showcase outstanding projects and initiatives in the fields of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources from all over the world and inform about the latest development in energy politics. A special program element is the presentation of the winners of the Energy Globe Award 2002 -- the prize for sustainable energy projects.

24-26 April
Web site: XV Argentine Geological Congress
El Calafate, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

29 June-5 July
Web site: VII World Renewable Energy Congress & Exhibition
Cologne, Germany

22-25 September
Geothermal Resources Council 2002 Annual Meeting
Reno, NV

16-26 August 2004
Web site: 32nd International Geological Congress
Florence, Italy
Email: Matteo Moscatelli, Newtours SpA

World Geothermal Congress 2005
Antalya, Turkey
WGC2005 First Announcement

To have your event listed, contact the Editor.


Other Geothermal and Related Calendars:


Geothermal Project Pipeline

The following projects are in various stages of development. Projects which have not been listed before are marked NEW.

Country Project Name Project Developer / Financing Source US$ (millions)
Canada South Meager (150-250 MWe) Crew Development Corporation (Crew), Guy F. Atkinson Company $538.3 for 150 MWe
Costa Rica Miravalles IV (23 MWe) TBD TBD

The Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) is performing studies and investigations in the field.
Costa Rica Miravalles V (20 MWe)

Tender No. 6806-E
Inter-American Development Bank $31

Tender issued by the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) March 2001; deadline for offers was 13 June 2001
Djibouti Assal Geothermal Power Plant (Feasibility Study) Geothermal Development Associates, U.S. Trade and Development Agency $.09
El Salvador Concessions of San Vicente and Chinameca Geothermal Fields Projects

Public Bid Nos. SIGET/GE-02/CG-2000, SIGET/GE-03/CG-2000
The General Superintendence of Electricity and Telecommunications of El Salvador (SIGET) invites national and foreign entities interested in the generation of electricity to submit information for the qualification phase for the concessions of San Vicente and Chinameca geothermal projects to be awarded for the construction and operation of power generation projects. Proposal submission deadline was 4 December 2000
Indonesia PLTP Darajat (275 MWe) Amoseas Indonesia, Chevron, Texaco, PT Derajat Geothermal Indonesia, PT Prasarana Nusantara $475

Tariff cut; project on track to come on-line in 2002
Darajat II (81.3 MWe, nominal rating) Amoseas Indonesia, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Commercial operation began and new long-term contract signed with PLN in June 2000

Darajat II is possibly the most efficient geothermal power plant in the world. It requires only 5.98 tons/hr steam per MWe produced.
Indonesia Sarulla, North Sumatra Unocal North Sumatra Geothermal Ltd. The company has identified two development areas: Silangkitang with a capacity of 100 MWe, and Namora-I-Langit, which can support three generation units totaling 210-290 MWe.

Postponed in 1997; negotiations underway 2001
Wayang Windu, Unit I (110 MWe, nominal output) Mandala Nusantara Ltd. Went online June 2000
Kenya Olkaria II, 64 MWe (2 x 32)

Kingston Morrison, Mitsubishi Corporation, H. Young
European Investment Bank, World Bank (IDA), KFW (Germany), Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen) $178

Due to be commissioned July 2002
Kenya Olkaria III, 64-100 MWe Ormat International

BOO with 20-year concession

13 MWe on-line; additional 4 MWe to be provided in December 2000
Kenya Olkaria IV, "Domes" and Eburru, 64 MWe Development will be open to the private sector; contact Ministry of Energy or Steve Hirsch Scheduled to come on-line 2005/6
Mexico Cerro Prieto IV, 100 MWe (4 x 25) Japan Bank for International Cooperation, BNP Paribas, ING Bank, Mitsubishi $120.0

August 2000 - Cerro Prieto IV (100 MWe) began startup, BLT with a 12-year lease, the first private geothermal project in Mexico
Mexico Las Tres Virgenes, 10 MWe (2 x 5) CFE Tender In development
Mexico Los Azufres II, 100 MWe (4 x 25) ALSTOM won turnkey order

Funded under a privately financed scheme called OPF: the company assumes construction risk and sells the finished plant to CFE.

Initiation of Project - 2001, Plant Commissioning - end of 2002
Mexico Los Azufres, III (Primavera), 75 MWe CFE Tender In development
Mexico Los Humeros, 50 MWe CFE Tender In development
Mexico Off-Grid Rural Electrification (MXGE68390) World Bank, Global Environment Facility

The project will test private-sector implemented mechanisms for sustainable electrification of off-grid rural areas, using conventional and renewable energy technologies, as feasible.

Appraisal mission is tentatively scheduled for mid-August 2001.

Consulting services to be determined.
Northern Negros (40 MWe) Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), Philippine National Oil Company -Energy Development Corp. (PNOC-EDC) $110.0

In development
Rangas-Tanawon (40 MWe) Kyushu Electric PNOC-EDC signed a memorandum of understanding for the joint development of the resource.
Philippines Rural Power (formerly Rural Electrification) World Bank

Mr. Reuben Emmanuel T. Quejas,Chief, Nonconventional Energy Division, Department of Energy, Energy Center, Merrit Rd., Fort Bonifacio, Taguig, Metro Manila, Philippines, Tel: (63-2) 844-1021 to 40, Fax: (63-2) 818-8614, Email:

Project is being identified.

Consulting services to be determined.
Russia Mutnovsky Independent Power Project, Kamchatka, 50-250 MWe European Bank for Reconstruction & Development, CSC Geoterm $353.2

Stage I - 50 MWe (2 x 25) (expected on-line 2001)
Stage II - 100 MWe (expected on-line 2004)
Stage III - 100 MWe (expected on-line 2005)
Uganda Alternative Energy Resource Assessment and Utilization Study

Notice Identification No. AfDB138-547/00
African Development Fund

The Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, P.O. Box 7270, Kampala, Uganda, Tel: (256-41) 234-733, Fax: (256-41) 234-732. Email:

The main objective of the study is to find a technically, financially and economically feasible, socially and environmentally sound, and sustainable least cost alternative energy resources development program to meet the energy demand of energy deficient rural areas and small towns of Uganda.
United States Elem Pomo Indian Tribal Site, Sulphur Bank Rancheria, California, 250 MWe Focal Corporation, United Native Depository Corporation TBD

UNDC will pay $125 million for construction, and receive 85% of the plant's net profits for 50 years. After the construction financing has been repaid, the Elem Pomo Tribe will receive 51% ownership of the plant with UNDC holding 49%. Focal Corporation will develop the plant and receive 25% of UNDC's share of the net profits for 50 years.
Viet Nam Central Region Geothermal Power, 50 MWe (Feasibility Study) U.S. Trade and Development Agency The U.S. Trade and Development Agency is providing a grant in support of a BOT contract to be negotiated with the Ministry of Industry. The feasibility study will study the electricity tariff and benefits of the project.
Viet Nam Central Region Geothermal Power, 50 MWe Ormat International

Sole source project; BOT

Ormat received a renewed exploration license in September 2000.

Sources: United Nations Development Business; the Infrastructure Division; the International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce Global Infrastructure Projects Database; others as noted.


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31 October 2001.


Green Green is produced for the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under Purchase Order No. K99-181018 and the U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies.

This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof.

Green Green is produced by
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