Green Green:  Financing News for the U.S. Geothermal Industry

Volume 4, Number 4
30 September 2003


World Bank carbon trade fund to cut gas emissions in developing countries

Germany partnering with Kenya to develop geothermal


In Short

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Community Development Carbon Fund

World Bank carbon trade fund to cut gas emissions in developing countries

The groundbreaking Community Development Carbon Fund (CDCF) became operational in mid-July. Created by the World Bank with the United Nations Climate Change Secretariat and the International Emissions Trading Association, the CDCF will provide financial support to small-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects in less developed countries and poor communities in developing countries. A potential geothermal project is to increase capacity by 5 MW at an existing site in El Salvador, saving over its lifetime almost half a million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. The CDCF will support initiatives with significant and measurable community development benefits in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and solid waste to energy conversion. Poor communities will receive development dollars while fund participants receive carbon emission reduction credits under the Kyoto Protocol.

Commitments of US $35 million have been received from public and private sector participants, towards the CDCF's total US $100 million package. Contributors include the governments of Canada, Italy, and the Netherlands; Japanese companies such as Daiwa Securities SMBC, Idemitsu Kosan, Nippon Oil, and Okinawa Electric; BASF of Germany; and ENDESA of Spain.

World Bank market research shows that the market for carbon emissions has doubled in the last year, but only 13% of direct private sector emission reduction investment went to developing countries, and none to the least developed countries. The CDCF may be the only opportunity for some poor countries to gain any benefits from the Kyoto Protocol.

For more information, see the World Bank 15 July 2003 press release, or the World Bank website on Carbon Finance. To learn more about the CDCF, including project criteria, see the Community Development Carbon Fund website.


Germany partnering with Kenya to develop geothermal

The Federal Republic of Germany, through Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) will make an additional US$ 16.5 million (Sh1.3 billion) available to the Government of Kenya to lay the groundwork for developing another geothermal power plant in Kenya. The main purpose of the new project is to remove barriers to private investment in geothermal development.

As part of the new project, six test wells will be drilled up to 2,000 meters deep, and the results evaluated for development of the geothermal field. In addition, the project will provide a transaction advisor to support the tendering process. The risk that the geothermal potential required for power plant operation will not suffice will be covered through a risk guarantee fund. The guarantee fund could cover additional costs for further test drills.

Similar risk guarantee projects are planned in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and Ethiopia under a regional program organized by the Global Environment Facility and the United Nations Environment Programme to promote geothermal energy in the East African Rift Valley. KfW is cooperating closely with the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe – BGR) in Hanover. The BGR is conducting a sector project to promote the use of geothermal energy on behalf of the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).

The new credit is in addition to KfW's US$ 14.1 million (Sh1.1 billion) loan for Olkaria II, and US$ 9.3 million (Sh731 million) for Olkaria IV. The 64-MW Olkaria II will be fully commissioned by October, more than doubling Kenya's installed geothermal capacity. Olkaria II is estimated to cost US$ 178 million, and is co-financed by the World Bank, the European Investment Bank, KfW, and the Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen). A New Zealand company, Sinclair Knight Mertz, is supervising implementation of the project. With Olkaria II online, Kenya will produce 121 MW of geothermal power.

KenGen has issued a tender to prequalify drilling and geoscientific consultancy firms to to prove the size and suitability of a geothermal reservoir for the 60-MW Olkaria IV power plant, which will be developed by either an independent power producer (IPP), build-own-operate (BOO), or build-own-operate-transfer (BOOT) format. Pre-qualification applications were due to KenGen by 29 August; short-listed firms will be invited to submit bids. Olkaria IV should be online by mid-2009.

Only about 15% of Kenya's total population—30% urban and 0.5% rural—have access to electricity. Currently, 70% of Kenya’s electricity is generated by hydropower which is highly susceptible to droughts. In the past decade Kenya was affected by four droughts, some of which were extreme and had a severe impact on energy supplies. The result was a marked recession that affected all economic sectors. Kenya plans to have an additional 576 MW of geothermal electric generation capacity online by 2017, accounting for about 25% of Kenya's total power needs. According to a KenGen report, Kenya has a potential of over 2,000 MW of geothermal energy resources.

(Sources: "2002 Annual Report on German Cooperation with Developing Countries," KfW; "Kenya, Germany in Sh1.3b power deal" by John Oyuke, Financial News, The Financial Standard, 12-18 August 2003.)


In Short

  • According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) Renewable Energy Working Party report, "Renewable Energy...into the Mainstream," renewable energy is proving to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. Produced in October 2002 but released in June 2003, the report concludes that "More and more, renewable energies are contributing to the three pillars of sustainable development – the economy, the environment and social well-being – not only in IEA countries, but globally." Click here to obtain the report in PDF format.

    Regarding geothermal energy, the report found that:
    • Geothermal technology is mostly used for power generation, though its use for space heating is becoming increasingly important.
    • Geothermal electricity generation is a baseload technology, and can be a low-cost option if the hot water or steam resource is at a high temperature and near the earth's surface.
    • Because the environmental impacts are not yet fully understood, the IEA relies on a task force from one of its Implementing Agreements to provide a comprehensive environmental assessment.
    • There are identified geothermal resources in more than 80 countries; the accessible resource base is estimated at 600,000 EJ.
    • The useful accessible resource base for electricity production is estimated at 12,000 TWh/year. Only a small fraction has been exploited.


  • Subject to shareholder approval, Origin Energy will purchase a 19% interest in Geodynamics Limited's Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Energy project, buying 10 million shares for US$ 3.4 million (Aus$ 5 million). Drilling and seismic data from five natural gas wells in the Cooper Basin estimate that the granite slab is 3,500-meters deep, with temperatures of 245ºC near the top, which will increase as drills pierce the 1,000-meter slab (in comparison, the HDR project in France encountered temperatures of 170ºC). Geodynamics Limited announced that its Habanero-1 well has reached a depth of 4,421 meters (14,504 feet), which will allow the company to proceed to the next stage of development (drilling delays and interruptions increased the well's cost to $12 million). According to Managing director Bertus de Graaf, ""Now we are armed with the knowledge of overpressure conditions in the hot granite, the next well can be drilled efficiently and effectively at much lower cost—$6 million to $7 million." The next step is the "hydraulic stimulation" stage, in which high-pressure water is injected into the well to fracture the rock and form an underground reservoir.

Central America


  • Europe will surpass its target for the generation of electricity from geothermal, according to the "Geothermal Energy Barometer" report. By 2010, Italy expects to have 946 MW of capacity online, Portugal 45 MW, and France 36 MW, for a total of 1,027 MW, slightly over the White Paper objectives of 1,000 MW, up from 883.3 MW at the end of 2002. Geothermal is on track to reach the White Paper objectives in Europe, notes the analysis, "unlike the other renewable energy sectors." The report was prepared by Observ’ER as part of the “EurObserv’ER” Project.
  • The European Investment Bank (EIB) recently strengthened its strategy for financing renewable energy projects. In 2002, it set itself a goal of doubling financing to renewable energy projects over the next five years from 7.5% of total energy lending to 15%. The Bank is also exploring the possibility of lending to intermediaries that can evaluate and manage small-scale, decentralized projects. The Bank has financed renewable energy projects since the 1970s, primarily medium and large-scale hydroelectric plants. "EIB Support to Renewable Energies," which outlines the EIB's renewable energy strategy, is available in PDF format. For more information, see the EIB lending in support of the environment webpage, or contact Yvonne Berghorst, Information and Communications Department, Tel: (+352) 43-79-3154, or email at


  • The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) announced in early August approval of a US$ 37.5 million loan for Guatemala to help finance the construction of an electricity transmission line that will link the Guatemalan and Mexican power grids. The project is part of the Plan Puebla Panama’s energy integration initiative and will complement the SIEPAC project to connect the electricity systems of Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. Both projects will help reduce energy costs in the Mesoamerican region; expand the number of energy sources available to participating countries, including geothermal; and improve the quality of electricity services by providing a more robust and reliable infrastructure. Assuming no major delays, the construction of the interconnection might be completed in 2005. For more information, see the IDB's 6 August 2003 press release.


  • The Indonesian House of Representatives has passed a geothermal bill designed to provide legal certainty for investors investing in the country's high-risk geothermal sector and protect the public from environmental hazards brought about by geothermal exploration. When enacted, the new law will cover operational management, adjudicate revenue splits between the central and regional governments, and act as a division of authority between the two bodies on the matter of geothermal resource management. Indonesia Minister of Research and Technology, Hatta Radjasa, believes that the law will attract investors to the sector and that regions with geothermal resources will benefit from the investment. It is believed that one of the incentives offered includes tax facilities, which according to Irwan Prayitno of the Reform faction, will guarantee returns on investment and insure that contracts will be respected (Source: "Indonesia moves to protect geothermal investors" by Alfean Hardy, Malaysia, EnergyReview.Net's E-Newsletter, 25 September 2003).
  • State-owned electricity company, PT PLN, finished the renegotiation process with several Independent Power Producers (IPPs) for 26 power plant projects. Of the 26 IPPs, 14 will continue their projects under a new pricing scheme, 7 will terminate their Power Purchase Agreement (PPAs), and 5 will be taken over by PLN and Pertamina. The following table shows the disposition of the 11 geothermal power plants.

    Plant name Location Capacity (MW) Investment
    1. Darajat West Java 70 125 Continue
    2. Sibayak North Sumatra 10.2 17 Continue
    3. Bedugul Bali 10, 3 x 55 17 Continue
    4. Gunung Salak West Java 165 260 Continue
    5. Cibuni West Java 10 17 Taken over
    6. Wayang Windu West Java 2 x 110 434 Taken over
    7. Sarulla North Sumatra 200 570 Taken over
    8. Dieng Central Java 60, 120 330 Taken over
    9. Patuha West Java 60, 120 310 Taken over
    10. Kamojang West Java 60 104 Continue
    11. Tanjung Jati A East Java 1.320 1,660 Terminated

    The Indonesian Government will invite private investors to build the Cibuni, Wayang Windu, Sarulla, Dieng, and Patuha geothermal projects that will be owned and operated by the Government. In addition, the Government may open a new tender for developing the terminated power plant. For more information, email Anasia (Sissy) Silviati, Commercial Specialist U.S. Commercial Service, Jakarta, at
  • Pertamina will issue a US$ 250 million bond to finance the buyout of a geothermal power plant, a company official said in late July. Pertamina plans to buy the 220-MW Wayang Windu power project from PT Mandala Nusantara, a company owned by former President Suharto's youngest son Hutomo Mandala Putra. The development of the power plant was halted during the 1997 Asian financial crisis.

New Zealand

  • Having received Notice to Proceed, ORMAT International, Inc. has begun the design, supply, and construction of the Mokai II geothermal power plant, the seventh the company has built in New Zealand. Valued at $44 million, the 42-MW Mokai II plant will use a 34-MW geothermal steam-powered ORMAT combined cycle module and an 8-MW ORMAT energy converter powered by geothermal brine. By using newly developed organic vapor turbines, the plant is expected to achieve an efficiency of 21%. Like Mokai I, the Mokai II plant will be owned by the Tuaropaki Trust in Taupo and operated by Mighty River Power. The plant is planned for completion by April 2005. For more information: ORMAT press release; contact Hilel Legmann at; Power Technology; or Mighty River Power news release. Over 250 MW is eventually planned at the Mokai site.
  • Mighty River Power hopes that groundwork under way at Kawerau will lead to a US$ 150 million geothermal power station on land owned by the Putauaki Trust. If all goes according to plan, a drilling program will start this November, and a 50-MW power plant will be online by 2008. First, however, the project must go through the Resource Management Act process. The Putauaki Trust and Mighty River Power signed an agreement for assessment and possible development on the Kawerau geothermal field in April. According to the general manager of communications, Neil Williams, Mighty River's future growth is expected to come from geothermal development (Source: "Mighty River optimistic about Kawerau geothermal plant," Daily Post (Rotorua), 26 August 2003).
  • In July 2003, Contact Energy announced a major new initiative to improve the quality of the water discharged into the Waikato River from its Wairakei geothermal plant. According to Contact's chief executive, Steve Barrett, "The most likely options are water treatment and further outfield re-injection, where water is returned underground but away from the geothermal field." The initiative will be implemented once Contact's application for a resource consent renewal to operate the plant is finalized. It is expected to take several years to fully implement and will require construction of new treatment facilities. For more information: Contact 21 July 2003 press release.


  • President Enrique Bolanos, who took office in January 2002, has made a high priority of attracting new foreign investment, and building a more supportive environment for existing investment. Government actions in the past year have included successful performance under an IMF program that required a significant reduction in the budget deficit and provided new resources and debt relief; creation of the investment promotion agency Pronicaragua in August 2002; and work towards opening a pilot "one-stop shop" for foreign investors in the Ministry of Development, Industry, and Trade (MIFIC). Inadequate infrastructure and a judicial system that is subject to political pressures, however, continue to impede investment. New public and private investment increased 10.7% in 2002 to US$ 693.5 million. ORMAT Momotombo Power Company Inc., a subsidiary of ORMAT International, Inc., is a major foreign investor in Nicaragua (Source: Investment Climate Statement 2003, American Embassy Managua).


  • According to the U.S. Foreign Commercial Service, geothermal energy is one of the best opportunities in the energy sector for U.S. companies in the Slovak Republic. According to a Slovakian Government survey, electricity generated from renewable energy sources by 2010 could increase by 133%; heat energy generated from renewables could triple. Geothermal energy is a local low cost power source. Slovakia has considerable low, medium, and high enthalpy geothermal resources. Estimated geothermal heat potential in Slovakia is approximately 6,300 GWh /year of which only 34 GWh is currently being used. The country has 25 sites with temperatures up to 150ºC at depths of 5,000 meters. The highest temperature resource is located in Kosice in Eastern Slovakia; it has an estimated potential of about 300 MW. Kosice is the site of TEKO, the country's sole geothermal power generation pilot project. For more information, email Marian Volent at (Source: "Renewable Energy; Generation, Transmission and Distribution Upgrade Opportunities," by Marian Volent, U.S. Commercial Service, 30 August 2003).


  • A Call for Papers has been issued for the World Geothermal Congress 2005 scheduled for Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005. Papers, which must be in English, may be presented verbally or as posters. Deadline for submission of abstracts is January 2004, accepted papers must be submitted by May 2004, and final edits are due by November 2004. Only authors of accepted papers are eligible for financial support. Abstracts may be submitted online via the World Geothermal Congress 2005 website, or faxed to Technical Programme Chairman Prof. Roland N. Horne at +1 (650) 725-2099.

United States

  • The U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Security Administration Service Center (NNSA) has issued a Request for Information (RFI) for sources of non-hydroelectric renewable energy generated from solar, geothermal, biomass, or wind technologies to supply up to 7 ½% of the electric energy requirements of the NNSA Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX and the NNSA Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, MO. Up to 17 GWh of renewables are required. Responses are due by 5:00 PM, Mountain Time, 10 November 2003. For more information, see Solicitation DE-RF52-04NA0000, "Renewable Electrical Energy", or contact David Nienow at Tel: (505) 845-6072, or email at
  • On 8 August, Secretary of Energy Abraham announced that the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy is making $2.2 million available to seven Native American tribes to support the development of renewable energy resources, and $800,000 to nine Native American tribes to support the initial steps needed to develop renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. None of the awards are for geothermal projects. For more information, see DOE's 8 August press releases, and the DOE Tribal Energy Program website.
  • On 13 August, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded $17.4 million for 187 energy efficiency and renewable energy projects under the State Energy Program (SEP) Special Projects competitive grants program. Of the total, five projects totaling $294,085 were awarded for Geothermal Outreach. They are: Arizona Geothermal Collaborative Outreach Program, $99,640; Assessment of Hawaii’s Geothermal Resource and Potential for Hydrogen Production, $42,753; Geothermal Energy Outreach In Rural Idaho Communities, $59,572; Identifying New Opportunities for Direct-Use Geothermal Development in California, $54,310; and New Mexico Geothermal Direct-Use Development, $37,810. For more information, see DOE's 13 August press release, and the DOE's State Energy Program website.
  • On 25 August, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced the selection of 113 applications for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvement grants in 24 states totaling $21 million as part of the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements program. Authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill, the program provides low interest loans, loan guarantees, and grants to farmers, ranchers, and rural businesses to buy and install renewable energy systems and invest in energy efficiency. None of the awards were for geothermal projects. For more information: USDA/Rural Development 25 August news release.
  • The U.S. Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank) has approved a new "Fast Track" application processing system that will enable small and medium-sized U.S. exporters to obtain larger Ex-Im Bank-guaranteed working capital loans in less time. Through "Fast Track" processing, nine experienced asset-based lenders can now provide up to $25 million per borrower in Ex-Im Bank-guaranteed working capital loans, subject to a total aggregate limit of $300 million per lender. The nine lenders are Bank of America; BankOne International Corp.; The CIT Group; Comerica Bank; General Electric Capital Corp.; JP Morgan Chase Bank; PNC Bank; Silicon Valley Bank; and Wells Fargo/HSBC Trade Bank.
  • Greater reliance on renewable energy technologies "could dramatically increase the reliability of our electrical delivery systems, making Americans less vulnerable to blackouts like the one that recently struck the Northeast," says the World Wildlife Federation (WWF). For more information, see the WWF website. In addition, following the 14 August blackout in the Northeast, think tank Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), called on U.S. energy policymakers to fundamentally change how the country designs its electricity system so that it is more reliable and more resilient. The solution, said Kyle Datta, Managing Director of RMI’s consulting practice, is distributed generation architecture; placing smaller, modular, diverse, and redundant electrical devices across the grid close to the loads they serve.


Upcoming Events


1-3 October
Website: Sustainable Energy Expo & Conference
Los Angeles, CA

1-4 October
Website: Electric Indonesia Series 2003
Jakarta, Indonesia

2-4 October NEW
Third International Conference on Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development (ICRESD-03)
Dhaka, Bangladesh
Contact: Dr. Golam Mohiuddin, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, at email:

6-9 October
Website: 1st North Africa/Mediterranean Petroleum & Geosciences Conference and Exhibition
Tunis, Tunisia

6-10 October NEW
Website: International Geothermal Workshop, IGW-2003
Sochi, Russia

8 October NEW
Website: Western States Renewable Energy Summit
Reno, Nevada
Featuring U.S. Senator Harry Reid and Congressman Jim Gibbons

8 October NEW
Website: Emissions Trading Conference
London, United Kingdom

9-10 October
Website: 6th Annual Business Opportunities Seminar with the Multilateral Development Banks
San Antonio, TX
Cost: $145.00
This seminar, designed for contractors, suppliers and consultants, will focus on procurement and contracting opportunities with the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the North American Development Bank, and the World Bank.

10 October NEW
Blaine County Renewable Energy/Green Building Fair
Sun Valley, Idaho
Contact: Ms. K.T. Hanna, Tel: 1-800-334-SAVE, or email at

10-12 October
2003 Shanghai International Expo on Renewable Energies
Shanghai, P.R. China

12-15 October
Website: Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) 2003 Annual Meeting:
"International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas"
Held in conjunction with the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE)
Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico

14-16 October
Website: 51st Annual Energy Information Technology Conference
Tampa, FL

15-17 October NEW
Website: Ex-Im Bank Southeast & Central Europe Regional Finance Conference
Bled, Slovenia

21 October NEW
Introduction to Geothermal Energy: A Renewable and Green Source of Electrical Power
Redmond, OR
Pacific Northwest Section of the Geothermal Resources Council
Contact: Bob Fujimoto, Tel: (503) 808-2430.

21-23 October
Website: Sustainable Energy 2003
Energy Efficiency Expo 2003
Environmental Solutions Expo 2003
London, United Kingdom

23-24 October NEW
Website: European Investment Bank Forum 2003
Visions of Environmental sustainability – Europe's Long-Term Energy and Water Policies
Dublin, Ireland

27-28 October
Website: 7th Annual Mexican Energy
Houston, TX

31 October-2 November NEW
Website: 2003 Tenth Annual CIS and Eastern Europe Business Forum
Tucson, AZ
Organized by the University of Arizona Department of Russian and Slavic Studies


3-5 November NEW
Website: Eighth National Green Power Marketing Conference
Chicago, IL

3-7 November
Website: Implementation of NEPA on Federal Lands and Facilities
Duke University
Durham, NC

4-6 November NEW
Website: Renewable Energy 2003: Modern Situation, Problems, and Trends
St. Petersburg, Russia

12-13 November
Website: Fachkongress Geothermischer Strom-Start in eine neue Energiezukunft
Neustadt-Glewe, Germany

12-14 November NEW
Website: 25th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop:
Managing New Zealand's Geothermal Resources
Auckland, New Zealand

17-18 November
Website: 5th Annual Financing U.S. Power Projects

17-19 November NEW
Website: 16th NREL Industry Growth Forum:
Financing the Path to Clean Energy and a Hydrogen Future
Austin, TX

17-20 November NEW
Website: International Trade & Pre-Export Finance
Miami, FL

17-21 November NEW
Website: Export & International Project Finance in the Energy Sectors:
Oil, Gas and Power
New York, NY

18-19 November
Website: Sustainable Energy Asia
Energy Efficiency Asia

20 November NEW
Website: Latin American Power Sector: Taking The Next Steps
New York, NY

26-28 November
Energy Solution WORLD 2003
Held in conjunction with JETRO Environment Japan 2003
Chiba, Japan
Contact: Aaron Held at, or Kenji Kobayashi at
Commercial Specialists, U.S. Embassy, Tokyo

7-11 December
Website: Fourth International Conference on Fluid and Thermal Energy Conversion
Bali, Indonesia

8-10 December
Website: 14th Annual National Energy Services Conference and Exposition
New Orleans, LA


26-28 January NEW
Website: 29th Stanford Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering
Stanford University, CA
Title and abstracts due 10 October 2003

29-30 January
Website: 4th Annual Caribbean Energy
Miami, FL

10-12 February NEW
Website: Second International Symposium on the Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rock
Berkeley, CA

16-19 February
Website: Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists Conference and Exhibition:
"Growth Through Innovation"
Adelaide, Australia
Growth of reserves, corporate growth, professional growth—all are underpinned by innovation. From von Wrede’s use of variation in the magnetic field to discover ores in the early 1900s to the development of modern day high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys; from seismic refraction profiles over Gulf Coast salt domes in the 1920s to today's time lapse 3-D seismic surveys over offshore fields—innovation in exploration geophysics delivers growth.

1-3 March
Website: POWER-GEN Renewable Energy
Las Vegas, NV

10-11 March NEW
25th Annual PNOC-EDC Geothermal Conference
Manila, Philippines
Contact: Dotto Los Banos, PNOC-EDC, Tel: (632) 893-6001, Fax: (632) 840-1580 or 840-1575, or email:

30 March-1 April NEW
Website: Electric Power 2004
Baltimore, MD

7-9 April NEW
2004 Asia Renewable Energy Conference & Exhibition (REAsia 2004)
Beijing, China
Contact: Grace Fair International Limited, Tel: (+86-10) 643-90338, Fax: (+86-10) 643-90339.

18-21 April NEW
Website: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Annual Meeting
Poster session: "New Advances in Geothermal Energy"
Dallas, TX

30-31 May NEW
Website: 2nd World Renewable Energy Forum: Policies and Strategies
Bonn, Germany

7-11 June NEW
Website: Export & International Project Finance in the Energy Sectors:
Oil, Gas and Power
New York, NY

16-26 August NEW
32nd International Geological Congress
Florence, Italy
Contact: Matteo Moscatelli, Newtours SpA at email:

20-28 August
Website: 32nd International Geological Congress
Florence, Italy

28 August-3 September
Website: World Renewable Energy Congress VIII
Denver, CO
The World Renewable Energy Congress is the world's premiere conference on renewable energy. Held every two years, the Congress provides an international forum that attracts more than 800 delegates from over 100 countries. Abstracts due 30 November 2003.

5-9 September
Website: 19th World Energy Congress
Sydney, Australia
Abstracts for Paper and Poster proposals due 1 October 2003.

24-27 October NEW
Website: 2004 AAPG International Conference and Exhibition
Cancun, Mexico
Abstracts due 11 November 2003.

24-29 April 2005
Website: World Geothermal Congress 2005
Antalya, Turkey
Abstracts due: December 2003
Draft papers due: May 2004
Final papers due: November 2004

To have your event listed, contact the Editor.


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Green Green is produced for the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under Purchase Order No. K99-181018, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program.

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